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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Relative Pronouns

306. A Relative generally agrees in gender and number with an appositive or predicate noun in its own clause, rather than with an antecedent of different gender or number (cf. § 296 . a):—

mare etiam quem Neptūnum esse dīcēbās (N. D. 3.52), the sea, too, which you said was Neptune. [Not quod.]

Thēbae ipsae, quod Boeōtiae caput est (Liv. 42.44), even Thebes, which is the chief city of Bœotia. [Not quae.]

Note— This rule is occasionally violated: as, —flūmen quod appellātur Tamesis (B. G. 5.11), a river which is called the Thames.

a. A relative occasionally agrees with its antecedent in case (by attraction):—

sī aliquid agā eōrum quōrum cōnsuēstī; (Fam. 5.14), if you should do something of what you are used to do. [For eōrum quae.]

Note— Occasionally the antecedent is attracted into the case of the relative:— urbem quam statuō vestra est (Aen. 1.573), the city which I am founding is yours. Naucratem, quem convenīre voluī, in nāvī nōn erat (Pl. Am. 1009), Naucrates, whom I wished to meet, was not on board the ship.

b. A relative may agree in gender and number with an implied antecedent:—

quārtum genus ... quī in vetere aere aliēnō vacillant (Cat. 2.21), a fourth class, who are staggering under old debts.

ūnus ex eō numerō quī parātī erant (Iug. 35), one of the number [of those] who were ready.

coniūrāvēre paucī, dē quā [i.e. coniūrātiōne] dīcam (Sall. Cat. 18), a few have conspired, of which [conspiracy] I will speak.

Note— So regularly when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun: as, nostra ācta, tyrannōs vocās (Vat. 29), the deeds of us, whom you call tyrants. [Here quōs agrees with the nostrum (genitive plural) implied in nostra .]

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