A TEI Project

Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Demonstrative Pronouns

298. The main uses of īdem and ipse are as follows:—

a. When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person or thing already named, is or īdem (often with the concessive quidem ) is used to indicate that person or thing:—

per ūnum servum et eum ex gladiātōriō lūdō; (Att. 1.16.5), by means of a single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial school.

vincula, et ea> sempiterna (Cat. 4.7), imprisonment , and that perpetual.

Ti. Gracchus rēgnum occupāre cōnātus est, vel rēgnāvit is quidem paucōs mēnsīs (Lael. 41), Tiberius Gracchus tried to usurp royal power, or rather he actually reigned a few months.

Note— So rarely with ille : as, nunc dextrā ingemināns ictūs, nunc ille sinistrā (Aen. 5.457), now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his left. [In imitation of the Homeric ὅ γε : cf. Aen. 5.334 ; 9.796.]

b. Idem , the same , is often used where the English requires an adverb or adverbial phrase ( also , too , yet , at the same time ):—

  1. ‘ōrātiō splendida et grandis et eadem in prīmīs facēta’ (Brut. 273) , an oration , brilliant , able , and very witty too.
  2. ‘cum [haec] dīcat, negat īdem esse in Deō grātiam’ (N. D. 1.121) , when he says this, he denies also that there is mercy with God (he, the same man).

Note— This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun cannot be represented by a pronoun in English.

c. The intensive ipse , self , is used with any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis:—

  1. ‘turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur’ (Phil. 1.9) , even to me (to me myself) it seemed disgraceful.
  2. id ipsum , that very thing; quod ipsum , which of itself alone.
  3. in eum ipsum locum , to that very place.
  4. ‘tum ipsum (Off. 2.60) , at that very time.

Note 1—The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English by just, very, mere, etc.

Note 2— In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he will come himself ) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself ): in Latin the former would be translated by ipse , the latter by or sēsē .

d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows:—

  1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person:—

    idque reī pūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum (Phil. 2.27), and this was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves.

    omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit (id . 2.29), all good men so far as was in their power (in themselves).

    dī capitī ipsīus generīque reservent (Aen. 8.484), may the gods hold in reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in-law's head.

  2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person:—
  3. vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī; (Phil. 2.1), remember in your own minds (yourselves with yourselves).

  4. To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons:—
  5. ipse dīxit (cf. αὐτὸς ἔφα), he (the Master) said it.

    Nōmentānus erat super ipsum (Hor. S. 2.8.23), Nomentanus was above [the host] himself [at table].

e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 300 . b).

f. Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real emphasis in English is on a reflexive in the predicate:—

mē ipse cōnsōlor (Lael. 10), I console myself. [Not mē ipsum, as the English would lead us to expect.]

XML File