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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES/ Rules of Agreement

286. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree with their nouns in Gender, Number , and Case:

vir fortis, a brave man.

illa mulier, that woman.

urbium māgnārum, of great cities.

cum ducentīs mīlitibus, with two hundred soldiers.

imperātor victus est, the general was beaten.

secūtae sunt tempestātēs, storms followed.

Note All rules for the agreement of adjectives apply also to adjective pronouns and to participles.

a. With two or more nouns the adjective is regularly plural, but often agrees with the nearest (especially when attributive):—

Nīsus et Euryalus prīmī (Aen. 5.294), Nisus and Euryalus first.

Caesaris omnī et grātiā et opibus fruor (Fam. 1.9.21), I enjoy all Cæsar's favor and resources.

Note An adjective referring to two nouns connected by the preposition cum is occasionally plural (synesis , § 280 . a): as, Iuba cum Labiēnō captī (B. Afr. 52), Juba and Labienus were taken.

b. A collective noun may take an adjective of a different gender and number agreeing with the gender and number of the individuals implied (synesis , § 280 . a):—

pars certāre parātī (Aen. 5.108), a part ready to contend.

colōniae aliquot dēductae, Prīscī Latīnī appellātī (Liv. 1.3), several colonies were planted (led out) [of men] called Old Latins.

multitūdō convictī sunt (Tac. Ann. 15.44), a multitude were convicted.

māgna pars raptae (id . 1.9), a large part [of the women] were seized.

NoteA superlative in the predicate rarely takes the gender of a partitive genitive by which it is limited: as, vēlōcissimum animālium delphīnus est (Plin. N. H. 9.20), the dolphin is the swiftest [creature] of creatures.

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