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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Predicate Noun or Adjective

284. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after the copula sum or a copulative verb is in the same case as the Subject:—

pācis semper auctor fuī; (Lig. 28), I have always been an adviser of peace.

quae pertinācia quibusdam, eadem aliīs cōnstantia vidērī potest (Marc. 31), what may seem obstinacy to some, may seem to others consistency.

êius mortis sedētis ultōrēs (Mil. 79), you sit as avengers of his death.

habeātur vir ēgregius Paulus’ (Cat. 4.21), let Paulus be regarded as an extraordinary man.

ego patrōnus exstitī ; (Rosc. Am. 5), I have come forward as an advocate.

dīcit nōn omnīs bonōs esse beātōs, he says that not all good men are happy.

a. A predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns is in the plural:—

cōnsulēs creantur Caesar et Servīlius’ (B. C. 3.1), Cæsar and Servilius are elected consuls.

b. Sum in the sense of exist makes a complete predicate without a predicate noun or adjective. It is then called the substantive verb:

sunt virī fortēs, there are (exist) brave men. [Cf. vīxēre fortēs ante Agamemnona (Hor. Od. 4.9.25), brave men lived before Agamemnon.]

For Predicate Accusative and Predicate Ablative, see §§ 392 , 415. N.

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