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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Clauses and Sentences

279. Subordinate Clauses are of various kinds.

a. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb is called a Relative Clause:—

Mosa prōfluit ex monte Vosegō, quī est in fīnibus Lingonum (B. G. 4.10), the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are on the borders of the Lingones.

For Relative Pronouns (or Relative Adverbs) serving to connect independent sentences, see § 308 . f.

b. A clause introduced by an Adverb of Time is called a Temporal Clause:—

cum tacent, clāmant’ (Cat. 1.21), while they are silent, they cry aloud.

hominēs aegrī morbō gravī, cum iactantur aestū febrīque, sī aquam gelidam biberint, prīmō relevārī videntur (id . 1.31), men suffering with a severe sickness, when they are tossing with the heat of fever, if they drink cold water, seem at first to be relieved.

c. A clause containing a Condition, introduced by , if (or some equivalent expression), is called a Conditional Clause. A sentence containing a conditional clause is called a Conditional Sentence.

Thus, sī aquam gelidam biberint, prīmō relevārī videntur (in b, above) is a Conditional Sentence, and ... biberint is a Conditional Clause.

d. A clause expressing the Purpose of an action is called a Final Clause:—

edō ut vīvam, I eat to live (that I may live).

mīsit lēgātōs quī dīcerent, he sent ambassadors to say (who should say).

e. A clause expressing the Result of an action is called a Consecutive Clause:—1

tam longē aberam ut nōn vidērem, I was too far away to see (so far away that I did not see).

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Observe that the classes defined in a-e are not mutually exclusive, but that a single clause may belong to several of them at once. Thus a relative clause is usually subordinate, and may be at the same time temporal or conditional: and subordinate clauses may be coördinate with each other