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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

COMPOUND WORDS/ Syntactic Compounds

267 Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

a. Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense:—

ā, ab, AWAY: ā-mittere, to send away.

ad, TO, TOWARDS: af-ferre (ad-ferō), to bring.

ante, BEFORE: ante-ferre, to prefer; ante-cellere, to excel.

circum, AROUND: circum-mūnīre, to fortify completely.

com-, con- (cum), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: cōn-ferre, to bring together; collocāre , to set firm.

, DOWN, UTTERLY: dē-spicere, despise; dē-struere, destroy.

ē, ex, OUT: ef-ferre (ec-ferō), to carry forth, uplift.

in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: īn-ferre, to bear against.

inter, BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter-rumpere, to interrupt.

ob, TOWARDS, TO MEET: of-ferre, to offer; ob-venīre, to meet.

sub, UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub-struere, to build beneath; sub-dūcere , to lead up

super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super-fluere, to overflow.

Note 1 In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circum, trāns, and govern the case of a noun: as, trānsīre flūmen, to cross a river (see § 388 . b).

Note 2 Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, faciō, cōnficiō, cōnfectus; iaciō, ēiciō, ēiectus. But long a is retained: as, perāctus.

b. VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:—

amb- ( am-, an-), AROUND: amb-īre, to go about (cf. ἀμφί, about).

dis-, dī-, ASUNDER, APART: dis-cēdere, to depart (cf. duo, two); dī-vidĕre , to divide.

por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porrō, forth).

red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-īre, to return; re-clūdere, to open (from claudō, shut); re-ficere, to repair (make again).

sēd-, sē-, APART: sē-cernō, to separate; cf. sēd-itiō, a going apart, secession ( , īre, to go).

c. Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond:—

per-fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugiō.

trā-dux, vine-branch; cf. trā-dūcō (trāns-dūcō).

ad-vena, stranger; cf. ad-veniō.

con-iux (con-iūnx), spouse; cf. con-iungō.

in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dīcō.

prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-sideō.

com-bibō, boon companion; cf. com-bibō, -ĕre.

d. An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, ar regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:—

per-māgnus, very large.in-nocuus, harmless.
per-paucī, very few.in-imīcus, unfriendly.
sub-rūsticus , rather clownish.īn-sānus, insane.
sub-fuscus, darkish.īn-fīnītus, boundless.
prae-longus, very long.im-pūrus, impure.

Note Per and sub , in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per-terreō , terrify; sub-rīdeō , smile. In īgnōscō , pardon , in- appears to be the negative prefix.

    2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:—

    in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).

    im-bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellum, war).

    im-pūnis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment).

    in-teger, untouched , whole (cf. tangō, to touch , root TAG).

    in-vītus, unwilling (probably from root seen in vī-s, thou wishest).

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