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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Verbal Adjectives

251. Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the suffixes—

-āx, -idus, -ulus, -vus (-uus, -īvus, -tīvus)

-āx denotes a faulty or aggressive tendency; -tīvus is oftener passive.

pūgn-āx, pugnacious;pūgnāre, to fight.
aud-āx, bold;audēre, to dare.
cup-idus, eager;cupere, to desire.
bib-ulus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.);bibere, to drink.
proter-vus, violent , wanton;prōterere, to trample.
noc-uus (noc-īvus), hurtful, injurious;nocēre, to do harm.
recid-īvus, restored;recidere, to fall back.
cap-tīvus, captive; M., a prisoner of war;capere, to take.

Note— Of these, -āx is a reduction of -ācus (stem-vowel ā- + -cus), become independent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -ĕx, -ōx, -īx, and -ūx are found or employed in derivatives: as, imbrex, M., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from seni-s); ferōx, fierce (from ferus); atrōx, savage (from āter, black); celōx, F., a yacht (cf. cellō); fēlīx, happy, originally fertile (cf. fēlō , suck); fīdūcia, F., confidence (as from † fīdūx); cf. also victrīx (from victor). So mandūcus, chewing (from mandō).

-idus is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, herb); tumidus, swollen (cf. tumu-lus, hill; tumul-tus , uproar); callidus, tough, cunning (cf. callum, tough flesh ); mūcidus, slimy (cf. mūcus, slime); tābidus, wasting (cf. tābēs, wasting disease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-stems.

-ulus is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf. aemulus, rivalling (cf. imitor and imāgō); sēdulus, sitting by, attentive (cf. domi-seda, homestaying, and sēdō, set, settle, hence calm); pendulus, hanging (cf. pondō, ablative, in weight; perpendiculum, a plummet; appendix, an addition); strāgulus, covering (cf. strāgēs); legulus, a picker (cf. sacri-legus, a picker up of things sacred).

-vus seems originally primary (cf. § 234 . 2.8), but -īvus and -tīvus have become secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestīvus, of summer (from aestus , heat); tempestīvus, timely (from tempus); cf. domes-ticus (from domus).

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