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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Nominal Adjectives

250. Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging to (especially of places and times ) are formed with the suffixes—

-ter (-tris), -ester (-estris), -timus, -nus, -ernus, -urnus, -ternus (-turnus)

palūs-ter, of the marshes;palūs, a marsh.
pedes-ter, of the foot-soldiers;pedes, a footman.
sēmēs-tris, lasting six months;sex mēnsēs, six months.
silv-ester, silv-estris, woody;silva, a wood.
fīni-timus, neighboring, on the borders;fīnis, an end.
mari-timus, of the sea;mare, sea.
vēr-nus, vernal;vēr, spring.
hodi-ernus, of to-day;hodiē, to-day.
di-urnus, daily;diēs, day.
hes-ternus, of yesterday;herī (old hesī), yesterday.
diū-turnus, lasting;diū, long (in time).
Note Of these, -ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro- , § 234 . 2.16) to stems in t- or d-. Thus †pedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy. -nus is an inherited suffix (§ 234 . 2.4). -ernus and -urnus are formed by adding -nus to s- stems: as, diur-nus (for †dius-nus ), and hence, by analogy, hodiernus (hodiē). By an extension of the same principle were formed the suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like paternus and nocturnus.

a. Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes—

-ārius, -tōrius (-sōrius)

ōrdin-ārius, regular;ōrdō, rank, order.
argent-ārius, of silver or money;argentum, silver.
extr-ārius, stranger;extrā, outside.
meri-tōrius, profitable;meritus, earned.
dēvor-sōrius, of an inn (cf. § 254 . 5);dēvorsus, turned aside.

Note 1 Here -ius (§ 234 . 2.11) is added to shorter forms in -āris and -or: as, pecūliārius (from pecūliāris), bellātōrius (from bellātor).

Note 2 These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see § 254).

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