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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Nominal Adjectives

249. Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by means of the suffixes—

-ānus, -ēnus, -īnus; -ās, -ēnsis; -cus, -acus (-ācus), -icus; -eus, -êius, -icius

1. So from common nouns:

mont-ānus, of the mountains; mōns (stem monti-), mountain.
veter-ānus, veteran; vetus (stem veter-), old.
antelūc-ānus, before daylight; ante lūcem, before light.
terr-ēnus, earthly; terra, earth.
ser-ēnus, calm (of evening stillness); sērus, late.
coll-īnus, of a hill; collis, hill.
dīv-īnus, aivine; dīvus, god.
lībert-īnus, of the class of freedmen; lībertus, one's freedman.
cûi-ās, of what country? quis, who?
īnfim-ās, of the lowest rank; īnfimus, lowest.
for-ēnsis, of a market-place, or the Forum; forum, a market-place.
cīvi-cus, civic, of a citizen; cīvis, a citizen.
fullōn-icus, of a fuller; fullō, a fuller.
mer-ācus, pure; merum, pure wine.
fēmin-eus, of a woman, feminine; fēmina, a woman.
lact-eus, milky; lac , milk (stem lacti-).
plēb-ēius, of the commons, plebeian; plēbēs, the commons.
patr-icius, patrician; pater, father.

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from :

Rōm-ānus, Roman; Rōma, Rome.
Sull-ānī, Sulla's veterans; Sulla.
Cyzic-ēnī, Cyzicenes, people of Cyzicus; Cyzicus.
Ligur-īnus, of Liguria; Liguria.
Arpīn-ās, of Arpinum; Arpīnum.
Sicili-ēnsis, Sicilian; Sicilia, Sicil.
Īli-acus, Trojan (a Greek form); Īlium, Tro.
Platōn-icus, Platonic; Platō.
Aquil-êius, a Roman name; Aquil-êia, a town in Italy; Aquila.

a. Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become nouns:—

Silv-ānus, M., a god of the woods; silva, a wood.
membr-āna, F., skin; membrum, limb.
Aemili-ānus, M., name of Scipio Africanus; Aemilia (gēns).
lani-ēna, F., a butcher's stall; lanius, butcher.
Aufidi-ēnus, M., a Roman name; Aufidius (Aufidus).
inquil-īnus, M., a lodger; incola, an inhabitant.
Caec-īna, used as M., a Roman name; caecus, blind.
ru-īna, F., a fall; ruō, fall (no noun existing).
doctr-īna, F., learning; doctor , teacher.
Note— Of these terminations, -ānus, -ēnus, -īnus are compounded from -nus added to a stem-vowel: as, arca, arcānus; collis, collīnus. The long vowels come from a confusion with verb-stems (as in plē-nus, fīnī-tus, tribū-tus), and from the noun-stem in ā-: as, arcānus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in ō- and ū-: as, colōnus (colō, cf. incola), patrōnus (cf. patrō, -āre), tribūnus (cf. tribuō, tribus), Portūnus (cf. portus), Vacūna (cf. vacō, vacuus).

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