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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Nominal Adjectives

248. Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from nounstems with the suffixes—

-ālis, -āris, -ēlis, -īlis, -ūlis

nātūr-ālis, natural;nātūra, nature.
popul-āris, fellow-countryman;populus, a people.
patru-ēlis, cousin;patruus, uncle.
host-īlis, hostile;hostis, an enemy.
cur-ūlis, curule;currus, a chariot.
Note— The suffixes arise from adding -lis (stem li-) to various vowel stems. The long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf. vītā-lis, from vītā-, with rēg-ālis), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Aprīlis (aperīre), edūlis (edere), with senīlis (senex). -ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations -āris arises by differentiation for -ālis in words containing an l (as mīlit-āris).

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