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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns

241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes—

-ia (-iēs), -tia (-tiēs), -tās, -tūs, -tūdō

audāc-ia, boldness;audāx, bold.
pauper-iēs, poverty;pauper, poor.
trīsti-tia, sadness;trīstis, sad.
sēgni-tiēs, laziness;sēgnis, lazy.
boni-tās, goodness;bonus, good.
senec-tūs, age;senex, old.
māgni-tūdō, greatness;māgnus, great.

1. In stems ending in o- or ā- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb-ia) and appears as i before -tās, -tūs, -tia (as in boni-tās, above).

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tās: as, loquāx (stem loquāc-), loquāci-tās; but hones-tās, mâies-tās (as if from old adjectives in -es), ūber-tās, volup-tās. o after i is changed to e : as, pius (stem pio-), pie-tās; socius, socie-tās.

a. In like manner -dō and -gō (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems:—

  1. cupī-dō, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupī-).
  2. dulcē-dō, sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem dulcē-, cf. dulcē-scō.
  3. lumbā-gō, lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from †lumbō, -āre.

Note Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. § 234 . 2.11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t- suffix: as, mīlitia, from mīles (stem mīlit-); molestia from molestus; clēmentia from clēmēns; whence by analog, mali-tia, avāri-tia. -tās is inherited, but its component parts, tā- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; sēmen-tis from sēmen. -tūs is tū- + ti-, cf. servitū-dō. -dō and -gō appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but -dō is do- + ōn- : as, cupidus, cupīdō; gravidus, gravēdō (cf. gravē-scō); albidus, albēdō (cf. albēscō ); formidus, hot, formīdō (cf. formīdulōsus ), ( hot flash? ) fear; -gō is possibly co- + ōn-; cf. vorāx, vorāgō, but cf. Cethēgus. -tūdō is compounded of -dō with tu- stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volūmen, from volvō): as, cōnsuētū-dō, valētū-dō, habitū-dō; whence servitūdō (cf. servitūs , tūtis).

b. Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes—

-ium , -tium

hospit-ium, hospitality, an inn;1 hospes (gen. hospit-is), a guest.
collēg-ium, colleagueship, a college;collēga, a colleague.
auspic-ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic-is), a soothsayer.
gaud-ium, joy;gaudēre, to rejoice.
effug-ium, escape;effugere, to escape.
benefic-ium, a kindness;benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus .
dēsīder-ium, longing;dēsīderāre, to miss, from †dē-sīdēs, out
of place, of missing soldiers.
adverb-ium, adverb;ad verbum, [added] to a verb.
interlūn-ium, time of new moon;inter lūnās, between moons.
rēgifug-ium, flight of the kings;rēgis fuga, flight of a king.
servi-tium, slavery, the slave class;servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, collēg-ium, from collēga.

Note -ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -ius. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: a, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equitēs); so, by analogy, calvitium, servitium (from calvus, servus).

c. Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes—

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pecū-nia, money (chattels);pecū, cattle.
contici-nium, the hush of night;conticēscere, to become still.
auxi-lium, help;augēre, to increase.
lātrō-cinium , robbery;latrō, robber (cf. latrōcinor, rob, implying an adjective †latrōcinus).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see §§ 243 , 244.

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