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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns

240. Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots and verb-stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter suffixes—

-bulum, -culum, -brum, -crum, -trum

pā-bulum, fodder;pāscere, to feed.
sta-bulum, stall;stāre, to stand.
vehi-culum, wagon;vehere, to carry.
candēlā-brum, candlestick;candēla, candle (a secondary formation).
sepul-crum, tomb;sepelīre, to bury.
claus-trum (†claud-trum), bar;claudere, to shut.
arā-trum, plough;arāre, to plough.
Note -trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (§ 234 . 2.15), with the stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related; -culum is the same as -clum; -bulum contains lo- (§ 234 . II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related.

a. A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns and adjectives:—

fā-bula, tale;fārī, to speak.
rīdi-culus, laughable;rīdēre, to laugh.
fa-ber, smith;facere, to make.
late-bra, hiding-place;latēre, to hide.
tere-bra, auger;terere, to bore.
mulc-tra, milk-pail;mulgēre, to milk.

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