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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns

238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings—

a. Added to roots or forms conceived as roots—

NOM.-or , M.-ēs, F.-us , N.
GEN.-ōris-is-eris or -oris
STEM ōr- (earlier ōs-)i- er- (earlier (e/os-)
tim-or, fear;timēre, to fear.
am-or, love;amāre, to love.
sēd-ēs, seat;sedēre, to sit.
caed-ēs, slaughter;caedere, to kill.
genus, birth , race;GEN, to be born (root of gignō, bear).

Note Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

b. Apparently added to roots or verb-stems—

NOM.-iō, F.-tiō (-siō), F.-tūra ( -sūra), F.-tus, M.
GEN.-iōnis -tiōnis (-siōnis -tūrae (-sūrae) -tūs (-sūs)
STEMiōn- tiōn- (siōn-) tūrā- (sūrā-) tu- (su-)
leg-iō, a collectinglevy), a legion;leger , to collect.
reg-iō, a direction, a region;regere, to direct.
vocā-tiō, a calling;vocāre, to call.
mōlī-tiō, a toiling;mōlīrī, to toil.
scrīp-tūra, a writing;scrībere, to write.
sēn-sus (for †sent-tus), feeling;sentīre, to feel.

Note 1 -tiō, -tūra, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. § 236 . a. N. 1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see § 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senātus , senate (cf. senex); mentiō , mention (cf. mēns); fētūra, offspring (cf. fētus); litterātūra, literature (cf. litterae); cōnsulātus, consulship (cf. cōnsul).

Note 2 Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. § 234 . 2.3.); -iō is a compound formed by adding ōn- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, diciō (cf. -dicus and dicis ); -tiō is a compound formed by adding ōn- to stems in ti-: as, gradātiō (cf. gradātim); -tūra is formed by adding -ra, feminine of -rus , to stems in tu-: as, nātūra from nātus; statūra from status (cf. figūra, of like meaning, from a simple u- stem, †figu-s; and mātūrus, Mātūta).

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