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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

ROOTS AND STEMS

231. A root used as a stem may appear—

a. With a short vowel: as, duc-is (dux), DUC; nec-is (nex); i-s, i-d. So in verbs: as, es-t, fer-t (cf. § 174 . 2).

b. With a long vowel1: as, lūc-is (lūx), LUC; pāc-is (pāx). So in verbs: dūc-ō, ī-s for †eis, from , īre; fātur from fārī .

c. With reduplication: as, fur-fur, mar-mor, mur-mur. So in verbs: as, gi-gnō (root GEN), si-stō (root STA).

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Notes
1
The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as DŪ˘C) depends on inherited variations (see § 17 . a ).