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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

CONJUNCTIONS

224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions 1 and conjunctive phrases:—

COÖRDINATE

a. Copulative and Disjunctive

et, -que, atque (ac), and.

et...et ; et...-que (atque); -que...et; -que...-que (poetical), both...and.

etiam, quoque, neque nōn (necnōn), quīn etiam, itidem (item), also.

cum...tum; tum...tum, both...and; not only...but also.

quā...quā, on the one hand...on the other hand.

modo...modo, now...now.

aut...aut; vel...vel (-ve), either...or.

sīve (seu)... sīve, whether...or.

nec (neque) ...nec (neque); neque...nec; nec...neque (rare), neither ... nor.

et...neque, both...and not.

nec...et; nec (neque)...-que, neither (both not) ... and.

b. Adversative

sed, autem, vērum, vērō, at, atquī, but.

tamen, attamen, sed tamen, vērum tamen, but yet, nevertheless.

nihilōminus, none the less.

at vērō, but in truth; enimvērō, for in truth.

cēterum, on the other hand, but.

c. Causal

nam, namque, enim, etenim , for.

quāpropter, quārē, quamobrem, quōcircā, unde, wherefore, whence.

d. Illative

ergō, igitur, itaque, ideō, idcircō, inde, proinde, therefore, accordingly.

SUBORDINATE

a. Conditional

, if sīn, but if; nisi (), unless, if not; quod sī, but if.

modo, dum, dummodo, sī modo, if only, provided.

dummodo nē (dum nē, modo nē), provided only not.

b. Comparative

ut, utī, sīcut, just as; velut, as, so as; prout, ceu, like as, according as.

tamquam (tanquam). quasi, ut sī, ac sī, velutī, velut sī, as if.

quam atque (ac), as than.

c. Concessive

etsī, etiamsī, tametsī, even if; quamquam (quanquam), although.

quamvīs, quantumvīs, quamlibet, quantumlibet, however much.

licet (properly a verb), ut cum (quom), though, suppose, whereas.

d. Temporal

cum (quom), quandō, when; ubi, ut, when, as; cum prīmum, ubi prīmum, simul, simul ac, simul atque, as soon as; postquam (posteāquam), after.

prius...quam, ante...quam, before; nōn ante...quam, not until.

dum, ūsque dum, dōnec, quoad, until, as long as, while.

e. Consecutive and Final

ut (utī), quō, so that, in order that.

nē, ut nē, lest (that...not, in order that not); nēve (neu), that not, nor.

quīn (after negatives), quōminus, but that (so as to prevent), that not.

f. Causal

quia, quod, quoniam (†quom-iam), quandō, because.

cum (quom),since.

quandōquidem, sī quidem, quippe, ut pote, since indeed, inasmuch as.

proptereā...quod, for this reason...that.

On the use of Conjunctions, see §§ 323, 324. 

 

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Notes
1
Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. § 152 .