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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar


223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Coördinate and Subordinate:—

a. Coördinate, connecting coördinate or similar constructions (see § 278 . 2. a). These are:—

  1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.
  2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.
  3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.
  4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.

b. Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see § 278 . 2. b). These are:—

  1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, , if; nisi, unless.
  2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac sī, as if.
  3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).
  4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.
  5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.
  6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; , that not.
  7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.

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