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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS

217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:—

a. Adverbs of Place1

hīc, here.hūc, hither.hinc, hence.hāc, by this way.
ibi, there., thither.inde, thence., by that way.
istīc, there.istūc, thither.istinc, thence.istā, by that way.
illīc, there.illūc, thither.illinc, thence. illā (illāc), by that way.
ubi, where.quō, whither.unde, whence.quā, by what way.
alicubi, somewhere.aliquō, somewhither,alicunde, from some -aliquā, by some way.
(to) somewhere. where.
ibīdem, in the sameeōdem, to the sameindidem, from theeādem, by the same
place.place.same place.way.
alibī , elsewhere, inaliō , elsewhere, toaliunde, from an-aliā, in another
another place.another place.other place.way.
abiubi, wherever.quōquō, whitherso -undecunque , whence-quāquā, in whatever
ever.soever.way.
ubivīs , anywhere,quōvīs , anywher ,undique, from everyquāvī , by whatever
where you will.whither you will.quarter.way.
sĭcubi, if anywhere.sīquō, if anywheresīcunde, if from any -sīquā, if anywhere.
(anywhither ). where.
nēcubi, lest any -nēquō, lest any -nēcunde, lest fromnēquā, lest any -
where.whither.anywhere.where.
Note—The demonstrative adverbs hīc , ibi , istīc , illīc , and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns hīc, is, iste, ille (see § 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition: as, inde = ab eō, etc. So the relative or mterrogative ubi corresponds with quī (quis), ali-cubi with aliquis, ubiubi with quisquis, sī-cubi with sīquis (see §§ 147 - 151, with the table of correlatives in § 152).

 

ūsque, all the way to; usquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citrō, to this side; intrō, inwardly; ultrō, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); porrō, further on.

quōrsum (for quō vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? hōrsum, this way; prōrsum, forward (prōrsus, utterly ); intrōrsum, inwardly; retrōrsum, backward; sūrsum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliōrsum, another way.

b. Adverbs of Time

quandō, when? (interrogative); cum (quom), when (relative); ut, when, as; nunc , now; tunc (tum), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, while; iam diū, iam dūdum, iam prīdem, long ago, long since.

prīmum (prīmō), first; deinde (posteā), next after; postrēmum (postrēmō), finally; posteāquam, postquam, when (after that, as soon as).

umquam (unquam), ever; numquam (nunquam), never; semper, always.

aliquandō, at some time, at length; quandōque (quandōcumque), whenever; dēnique, at last.

quotiēns (quotiēs), how often; totiēns, so often; aliquotiēns, a number of times.

cotīdiē, every day; hodiē, to-day; herī, yesterday; crās, to-morrow; prīdiē, the day before; postrīdiē, the day after; in diēs, from day to day.

nōndum, not yet; necdum , nor yet; vixdum, scarce yet; quam prīmum , as soon as possible; saepe, often; crēbrō, frequently; iam nōn, no longer.

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam, how, as; tam, so; quamvīs, however much, although; paene, almost; magis, more; valdē, greatly; vix, hardly.

cūr, quārē, why; ideō, idcircō, proptereā, on this account, because; , therefore; ergō, itaque, igitur, therefore.

ita, sīc, so; ut (utī), as, how; utut, utcumque, however.

d. Interrogative Particles

an, -ne, anne, utrum, utrumne, num, whether.

nōnne, annōn, whether not; numquid, ecquid, whether at all.

On the use of Interrogative Particles, see §§332, 335.

e. Negative Particles

nōn, not (in simple denial); haud minimē, not (in contradiction); nē, not (in prohibition); nēve, neu, not; nēdum, much less.

nē, lest; neque, nec, nor; nē...quidem, not even

nōn modo...vērum (sed) etiam, not only, but also.

nōn modo...sed nē...quidem, not only not...but not even.

sī minus, if not; quō minus (quōminus), so as not.

quīn (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not?

nē, nec (in composition), not; so in nesciō, I know not; negō, I say no (âiō, I say yes); negōtium, business (†nec-ōtium); nē (nē- and hemō, old form of homō), no one; nē quis, lest any one; neque enim, for...not.

For the use of Negative particles see § 325 ff.

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see § 320 ff.

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Notes
1
All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and -ic are locative, those in and -ūc , and -āc , ablative (see § 215 ); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -ce added (thus illim, illin-c ).