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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

ADVERBS/ DERIVATION OF ADVERBS

214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows:

a. From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to : as, cārē, dearly, from cārus, dear (stem cāro-); amīcē, like a friend, from amīcus, friendly (stem amīco-).

Note— The ending is a relic of an old ablative in -ēd (cf. § 43 . N. 1).

b. From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems:—

fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave.

ācriter, eagerly, from ācer (stem ācri-), eager.

vigilanter, watchfully, from vigilāns (stem vigilant-).

prūdenter, prudently, from prūdēns (stem prūdent-).

aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-).

Note— This suffix is perhaps the same as -ter in the Greek - τερος and in uter, alter. If so, these adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives (cf. d ) or masculine nominatives.

c. Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of both forms ( and -ter). Thus dūrus, hard, has both dūrē and dūriter; miser, wretched, has both miserē and miseriter.

d. The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an adverb: as, multum, much; facilĕ, easily; quid, why.

This is the origin of the ending -ius in the comparative degree of adverbs (§ 218): as, ācrius, more keenly (positive ācriter); facilius, more easily (positive facilĕ).

Note— These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (§ 390).

e. The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falsō , falsely; citŏ, quickly (with shortened o); rēctā (viā), straight (straightway); crēbr, frequently; volgō , commonly; fortĕ, by chance; spontĕ, of one's own accord.

Note—Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abundē , plentifully (as if from †abundus; cf. abundō , abound ); saepĕ, often (as if from †saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepēs, hedge, and saepiō, hedge in).

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