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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

DEFECTIVE VERBS

206. Many verbs are found only in the Present System. Such are maereō, -ēre, be sorrowful (cf. maestus, sad ); feriō, -īre, strike.

In many the simple verb is incomplete, but the missing parts occur in its compounds: as, vādō , vādere , in-vāsī , in-vāsum .

Some verbs occur very commonly, but only in a few forms:—

a. Âiō, I say:

INDIC.PRES.âiō, ais, 1 ait; ----, ----, âiunt
IMPF. âiēbam,2 âiēbās, etc.
SUBJV.PRES.----, âiās, âiat; ----, ----, âiant
IMPER. (rare)
PART.âiēns

The vowels a and i are pronounced separately (a-is , a-it) except sometimes in old or colloquial Latin. Before a vowel, one i stands for two (see § 6 . c):—thus âiō was pronounced ai -yō and was sometimes written aiiō .

b. Inquam, I say, except in poetry, is used only in direct quotations (cf. the English quoth ).

INDIC.PRES.inquam , inquis , inquit; inquimus , inquitis (late), inquiunt
IMPF.----, ----, inquiēbat; ----, ----, ----
FUT.----, inquiēs , inquiet; ----, ----, ----
PERF.inquiī, inquīstī , ----; ----, ----, ----
IMPER.PRES.inque
FUT.inquitō

The only common forms are inquam , inquis , inquit , inquiunt , and the future īnquiēs, inquiet.

c. The deponent fārī , to speak , has the following forms:—

INDIC.PRES.----, ----, fātur; ----, ----, fantur
FUT.fābor, ----, fābitur; ----, ----, ----
PERF.----, ----, fātus est; ----, ----, fātī sunt
PLUP.fātus eram, ----, fātus erat; ----, ----, ----
IMPER.PRES.fāre
INFIN.PRES.fārī
PART.PRES.fāns, fantis, etc. (in singular)
PERF. fātus (having spoken)
GER. fandus (to be spoken of)
GERUND, gen.fandī , abl. fandōSUPINEfātū

Several forms compounded with the prepositions ex, prae, prō, inter, occur: as, praefātur, praefāmur, affārī, prōfātus, interfātur, etc. The compound īnfāns is regularly used as a noun (child). īnfandus, nefandus, are used as adjectives, unspeakable, abominable.

d. Queō, I can, nequeō, I cannot, are conjugated like . They are rarely used except in the present. Queō is regularly accompanied by a negative. The forms given below occur, those in full-faced type in classic prose. The Imperative, Gerund, and Supine are wanting.

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT PRESENT
queō queam nequeō ( nōn queō) nequeam
quīs queās nequīs nequeās
quit queat nequit nequeat
quīmus queāmus nequīmus nequeāmus
quītis ---- nequītis ----
queunt queant nequeunt nequeant
IMPERFECT IMPERFECT
quībam ---- ---- nequīrem
quībat quīret nequībat nequīret
---- quīrent nequībant nequīrent
FUTURE FUTURE
quībō nequībit
quībunt nequībunt
PERFECT PERFECT
quīvī ---- nequīvī nequīverim
---- ---- nequīstī ----
quīvit quīverit (-ierit) nequīvit ( nequiit) nequīverit
quīvērunt ( -ēre) quierint nequīvērunt (-quiēre) nequīverint
PLUPERFECT PLUPERFECT
---- ---- nequīverat (-ierat) nequīvisset ( -quīsset)
---- quīvissent nequīverant (-ierant) nequīssent
INFINITIVE
quīre quīsse nequīre nequīvisse (-quīsse)
PARTICIPLES
quiēns nequiēns , nequeuntēs
Note— A few passive forms are used with passive infinitives: as, quītur, queun tur, quitus sum, queātur, queantur, nequītur, nequitum; but none of these occurs in classic prose.

e. Quaesō , I ask , beg (original form of quaerō ), has—

INDIC.PRES.quaesō , quaesŭmus
Note— Other forms of quaesō are found occasionally in early Latin. For the perfect system ( quaesīvī , etc.), see quaerō (§ 211 . d ).

f. Ovāre , to triumph , has the following:—

INDIC.PRES.ovās, ovat
SUBJV.PRES.ovet
IMPF.ovāret
PART.ovāns, ovātūrus, ovātus
GER.ovandī

g. A few verbs are found chiefly in the Imperative:—

PRES. singular salvē, plural salvēte, FUT. salvētō, hail! (from salvus, safe and sound). An infinitive salvēre and the indicative forms salveō, salvētis, salvēbis, are rare.

PRES. singular avē (or havē), plural avēte, FUT. avētō, hail or farewell. An infinitive avēre also occurs.

PRES. singular cĕdo, plural cĕdite (cette), give , tell.

PRES. singular apage, begone (properly a Greek word).

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Notes
1
The second singular ais with the interrogative -ne is often written ain .
2
An old imperfect aibam , aibās , etc. (dissyllabic) is sometimes found.