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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

VERBS/ Semi-Deponents

192. A few verbs having no perfect stem are regular in the present, but appear in the tenses of completed action as deponents. These are called Semi-deponents. They are:—

audeō, audēre, ausus, dare. gaudeō, gaudēre, gāvīsus, rejoice.
fīdō, fīdĕre, fīsus, trust.soleō, solēre, solitus, be wont.


a. From audeō there is an old perfect subjunctive ausim . The form sōdēs (for sī audēs), an thou wilt, is frequent in the dramatists and rare elsewhere.

b. The active forms vāpulō, vāpulāre, be flogged, and vēneō, vēnīre, be sold (contracted from vēnum īre, go to sale), have a passive meaning, and are sometimes called neutral passives. To these may be added fierī, to be made (§ 204), and exsulāre, to be banished (live in exile); cf. accēdere, to be added.

Note— The following verbs are sometimes found as semi-deponents: iūrō, iūrāre. iūrātus, swear; nūbō, nūbere, nūpta, marry; placeō, placēre, placitus, please.

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