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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

VERBS/ Perfect Stem

177. The Perfect Stem is formed as follows:—

a. The suffix v (u) is added to the verb-stem: as, vocā-v-ī, audī-v-ī; or to the root: as, son-u-ī (sonā-re, root SON), mon-u-ī (monē-re, MON treated as a root). 1

Note— In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened: as, strā-v-ī (sternō, STAR), sprē-v-ī (spernō , SPAR).

b. The suffix s is added to the root: as, carp-s-ī (CARP), tēx-ī (for tēg-s-ī , TEG). 2

Note— The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the perfect: as, fīnx-ī (FIG, present stem fingĕ-), sānx-ī (SAC, present stem sancī-).

c. The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant—generally with ĕ, sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-ī (cadō , CAD), to-tond-ī (tondeō, TOND).

Note—In fid-ī (for †fe-fid-ī, find-ō), scid-ī (for †sci-scid-ī, scindō), the reduplication has been lost, leaving merely the root.

d. The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change: as, lēg-ī (lĕg-ō), ēm-ī (ĕm-ō), vīd-ī (vĭd-e-ō), fūg-ī (fŭg-i-ō), ēg-ī (ăg-ō).

e. Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in the present tense: as, vert-ī (vert-ō), solv-ī (solv-ō).

f. Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem: as, petī-v-ī (as if from †peti-ō, †petī-re, PET).

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Notes
1
The v- perfect is a form of uncertain origin peculiar to the Latin.
2
The s- perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, dīx-ī (for †dīcs-ī ) corresponds to the Greek aorist ἔ-δειξ-α (for †ἔ-δεικσ-α ).