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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

The Verb Sum

170. The verb sum, be, is both irregular and defective, having no gerund or supine, and no participle but the future.

Its conjugation is given at the outset, on account of its importance for the inflection of other verbs.

PRINCIPAL PARTS: Present Indicative sum, Present Infinitive esse, Perfect Indicative fuī, Future Participle futūrus.

PRESENT STEM es-PERFECT STEM fu-SUPINE STEM fut-
INDICATIVESUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
SING.1. sum, I amsim 1
2. ĕs, thou art (you are) sīs
3. est, he (she , it) is sit
PLUR.1. sumus, we aresīmus
2. estis, you aresītis
3. sunt, they aresint
IMPERFECT
SING.1. er am, I wasessem
2. erās, you wereessēs
3. erat, he (she , it) wasesset
PLUR.1. erāmus, we wereessēmus
2. erātis, you wereessētis
3. erant, they were essent
FUTURE
SING.1. erō, I shall be
2. eris, you will be
3. erit, he will be
PLUR.1. erimus, we shall be
2. eritis, you will be
3. erunt, they will be
PERFECT
SING. 1. fuī, I was (have been) fuerim
2. fuistī, you were fueris
3. fuit, he wasfuerit
PLUR.1. fuimus, we werefuerimus
2. fuistis, you werefueritis
3. fuērunt, fuēre, they were fuerint
PLUPERFECT
SING.1. fueram, I had beenfuissem
2. fuerās, you had beenfuissēs
3. fuerat, he had beenfuisset
PLUR.1. fuerāmus, we had beenfu issēmus
2. fuerātis, you had beenfu issētis
3. fuerant, they had beenfu issent
FUTURE PERFECT
SING.1. fuerō, I shall have beenPLUR.1. fuerimus, we shall have been
2. fueris, you will have been2. fueritis, you will have been
3. fuerit, he will have been3. fuerint, they will have been
IMPERATIVE
PRESENTSING.2. ĕs, be thouPLUR.2. este, be ye
FUTURE 2. es, thou shalt be2. estōte, ye shall be
3. es, he shall be3. suntō, they shall be
INFINITIVE
PRESENTesse, to be
PERFECTfuisse, to have been
FUTUREfutūrus esse or fore, to be about to be
PARTICIPLE
FUTUREfutūrus, -a, -um, about to be

a. For essem, essēs, etc., forem, forēs, foret, forent, are often used; so fore for futūrus esse.

b. The Present Participle, which would regularly be †sōns, 2 appears in the adjective īn-sōns, innocent , and in a modified form in ab-sēns, prae-sēns. The simple form ēns is sometimes found in late or philosophical Latin as a participle or abstract noun, in the forms ēns , being; entia , things which are.

Note— Old forms are:—Indicative: Future, escit, escunt (strictly an inchoative present, see § 263. 1). Subjunctive: Present, siem, siēs, siet, sient; fuam, fuās, fuat, fuant; Perfect, fūvimus; Pluperfect, fūvisset.

The root of the verb sum is ES, which in the imperfect is changed to ER (see § 15 . 4), and in many forms is shortened to S. Some of its modifications, as found in several languages more or less closely related to Latin, may be seen in the following table,— the Sanskrit syām corresponding to the Latin sim (siem):—

SANSKRITGREEKLATINLITHUANIAN
as-misyām (optative)ἔμμι (old form)s-um sim (siem)es-mi
as -isyāsἐσσί (old form)es sīs (siēs)es-i
as-tisyātἐστίes-t sit (siet)es-ti
s-massyāmaἐσμένs-umussīmuses-me
s-thasyātaἐστέes-tissītises-te
s-antisyusἐντί (old form)s-unt sint (sient)es-ti

The Perfect and Supine stems, fu-, fut-, are kindred with the Greek ἔφυ , and with the English be.

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Notes
1
All translations of the Subjunctive are misleading, and hence none is given; see § 157 . b.
2
Compare Sankrit sant , Greek ὤν .