A TEI Project

Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

VERBS/ PERSONAL ENDINGS

163. Verbs have regular terminations 1 for each of the three Persons, both singular and plural, active and passive. 2 These are:

ACTIVEPASSIVE
SINGULAR
1. -m ():am , I love.-r (-or):amo -r, I am loved.
2. -s:amā -s, thou lovest.-ris (-re):amā -ris, thou art loved.
3. -t:ama -t, he loves.-tur:amā -tur, he is loved.
PLURAL
1. -mus:amā -mus, we love.-mur:amā -mur, we are loved.
2. -tis:amā -tis, you love.-minī :amā -minī, you are loved.
3. -nt:ama -nt, they love.-ntur:ama -ntur, they are loved.

a. The Perfect Indicative active has the special terminations 3 :—

SING.1. :amāv , I loved.
2. -is-tī:amāv -is-tī, thou lovedst.
3. -i-t:amāv -i-t, he loved.
PLUR.1. -i-mus:amāv -i-mus, we loved.
2. -is-tis:amāv -is-tis, you loved.
3. -ērunt (-ēre): amāv -ērunt (-ēre), they loved.

b. The Imperative has the following terminations:—

PRESENT ACTIVE
SingularPlural
2. —:amā, love thou.-te:amā -te, love ye.
FUTURE ACTIVE
2. -tō:amā-tō, thou shalt love.-tōte:amā -tōte, ye shall love.
3. -t:amā-tō, he shall love.-ntō:ama -ntō, they shall love.

 

SingularPRESENT PASSIVE Plural
2. -re:amā -re, be thou loved.-minī:amā -minī, be ye loved.
FUTURE PASSIVE
2. -tor:amā -tor, thou shalt be loved.--------
3. -tor:amā -tor, he shall be loved.-ntor :ama -ntor, they shall be loved.

 

XML File

Notes
1
Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is thus added to that of the verb-stem (cf. § 36 ). But the ending -minī in the second person plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Greek - μενος , and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The personal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns ).
2
The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic languages, and of uncertain origin.
3
Of these terminations is not a personal ending, but appears to represent an Indo-European tense-sign -ai of the Perfect Middle. In -is-tī and -is-tis , -tī and -tis are personal endings; for -is -, see § 169 . c. N. In -i-t and -i-mus , -t and -mus are personal endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both -ērunt and -ēre are also of doubtful origin, but the former contains the personal ending -nt .