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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

PRONOUNS/ Compounds of quis and quī

151. The pronouns quis and quī appear in various combinations.

The adverb -cumque (-cunque) (cf. quisque) added to the relative makes an indefinite relative, which is declined like the simple word: as, quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever; cûiuscumque, etc.

Note— This suffix, with the same meaning, may be used with any relative: as, quāliscumque, of whatever sort; quandōcumque (also rarely quandōque), whenever; ubicumque, wherever.

a. In quisquis, whoever, both parts are declined, but the only forms in common use are quisquis, quidquid (quicquid) and quōquō.

Note 1— Rare forms are quemquem and quibusquibus; an ablative quīquī is sometimes found in early Latin; the ablative feminine quāquā is both late and rare. Cuicui occurs as a genitive in the phrase cuicui modī, of whatever kind. Other cases are cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine.

Note 2— Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative quōquō, which is more commonly an adjective.

c. The indefinite pronouns quīdam, a certain ( one ); quīvīs, quīlibet, any you please, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. The first part is declined like the relative quī, but the neuter has both quid- (substantive) and quod- (adjective):—

quīdamquaedamquiddam (quoddam)
quīvīsquaevīsquidvīs (quodvīs)

Quīdam changes m to n before d in the accusative singular (quendam, M.; quandam, F.) and the genitive plural (quōrundam, M., N.; quārundam , F.).

d. The indefinite pronouns quispiam, some, any, and quisquam, any at all, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. Quispiam has feminine quaepiam (adjective), neuter quidpiam (substantive) and quodpiam (adjective); the plural is very rare. Quisquam is both masculine and feminine; the neuter is quidquam (quicquam), substantive only; there is no plural. Ūllus, -a, -um, is commonly used as the adjective corresponding to quisquam.

e. The indefinite pronoun aliquis (substantive), some one, aliquī (adjective), some, is declined like quis and quī, but aliqua is used instead of aliquae except in the nominative plural feminine:—

NOM.aliquis ( aliquīaliquaaliquid ( aliquod
ACC.aliquemaliquamaliquid ( aliquod
1Aliquī is sometimes used substantively and aliquis as an adjective.


f. The indefinite pronoun ecquis (substantive), whether any one, ecquī (adjective), whether any, is declined like aliquis, but has either ecquae or ecqua in the nominative singular feminine of the adjective form.

Note— Ecquis ( ecquī ) has no genitive singular, and in the plural occurs in the nominative and accusative only.

g. The enclitic particle -que added to the interrogative gives a universal: as, quisque, every one; uterque , each of two, or both. Quisque is declined like the interrogative quis, quī :—substantive, quisque, quidque; adjective, quīque, quaeque, quodque.

In the compound ūnusquisque, every single one, both parts are declined (genitive unīuscûiusque ), and they are sometimes written separately and even separated by other words:—

‘nē in ūnō quidem quōque (Lael. 92), not even in a single one.

h. The relative and interrogative have rarely a possessive adjective cûius (-a , -um), older quôius , whose; and a patrial cûiās (cûiāt-), of what country.

i. Quantus, how great, quālis, of what sort, are derivative adjectives from the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding respectively to the demonstratives tantus, tālis (§ 152). Indefinite compounds are quantuscumque and quāliscumque (see § 151 . a).

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