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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Demonstrative Pronouns

146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are:— hīc, this; is, ille, iste, that; with the Intensive ipse, self, and īdem, same; 1 and are thus declined:—

hīc , this

SINGULARPLURAL
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.hīchaechōchaehaec
GEN.hûiushûiushûiushōrumhārumhōrum
DAT.huichuichuichīshīshīs
ACC.hunchanchōchōshāshaec
ABL.hōchāchōchīshīshīs

Note 1— Hīc is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. But in these latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, hûius-ce, hīs-ce. In early Latin -c alone is retained in some of these (hōrunc ). The vowel in hīc, hōc, was originally short, and perhaps this quantity was always retained. Ille and iste are sometimes found with the same enclitic: illic, illaec, illuc; also illoc. See a, p. 67.

Note 2— For the dative and ablative plural of hīc the old form hībus is sometimes found; haec occurs (rarely) for hae .

 

is , that

SINGULARPLURAL
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.iseaid , (ī)eaeea
GEN.êiusêiusêiuseōrumeārumeōrum
DAT. eīs , iīs (īs) eīs , iīs (īs) eīs , iīs (īs)
ACC.eumeamideōseāsea
ABL. eīs , iīs (īs) eīs , iīs (īs) eīs , iīs (īs)
Note 3— Obsolete forms are eae (dat. fem.), and eābus or ībus (dat. plur.). For dative are found also êī and ei (monosyllabic); ei, eos, etc., also occur in the plural.

 

ille , that

SINGULARPLURAL
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.illeillailludillīillaeilla
GEN.illīusillīusillīusillōrumillārumillōrum
DAT.illīillīillīillīsillīsillīs
ACC.illumillamilludillōsillāsilla
ABL.illōillāillōillīsillīsillīs

Iste, ista, istud, that (yonder), is declined like ille.

Note 4— Ille replaces an earlier ollus (olle), of which several forms occur.

Note 5— Iste is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The first syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry.

Note 6— The forms illī , istī (gen.), and illae , istae (dat.), are sometimes found; also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67.

 

ipse , self

SINGULARPLURAL
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.ipseipsaipsumipsīipsaeipsa
GEN.ipsīusipsīusipsīusipsōrumipsārumipsōrum
DAT.ipsīipsīipsīipsīsipsīsipsīs
ACC.ipsumipsamipsumipsōsipsāsipsa
ABL.ipsōipsāipsōipsīsipsīsipsīs

Note 7— Ipse is compounded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain origin: cf. § 145 . a), meaning self. The former part was originally declined, as in reāpse (for rē eāpse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, own self, used for comic effect.

Note 8— The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, eampse, eōpse, eāpse (ablative).

 

īdem , the same

SINGULARPLURAL
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.īdemeădemĭdem īdem (eī-)eaedemeădem
GEN.êiusdemêiusdemêiusdemeōrundemeārundemeōrundem
DAT.eīdemeīdemeīdemeīsdem or īsdem
ACC.eundemeandemĭdemeōsdemeāsdemeădem
ABL.eōdemeādemeōdemeīsdem or īsdem
Note 9— Īdem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix -dem. The masculine īdem is for †isdem ; the neuter idem, however, is not for †iddem , but is a relic of an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d: as, eundem for eumdem, etc. The plural forms īdem, īsdem, are often written iīdem, iīsdem.

 

a. Ille and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, shortened from -ce, in the following forms:—

SINGULAR
M.F.N.M.F.N.
NOM.illicillaec illuc (illoc)isticistaec istuc (istoc)
ACC.illuncillanc illuc (illoc)istuncistanc istuc (istoc)
ABL.illōcillācillōcistōcistācistōc
PLURAL
N., ACC.--------illaec--------istaec

Note 1— The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations: as, hûiusce , hunce, hōrunce, hārunce, hōsce, hīsce (cf. § 146 . N. 1), illīusce, īsce; also with the interrogative -ne, in hōcine, hōscine, istucine, illicine, etc.

Note 2— By composition with ecce or em, behold! are formed eccum (for ecce eum), eccam, eccōs, eccās; eccillum (for ecce illum); ellum (for em illum), ellam, ellōs, ellās; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial.

 

b. The combinations hûiusmodī (hûiuscemodī), êiusmodī, etc., are used as indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to tālis, such: as, rēs êiusmodī, such a thing (a thing of that sort: cf. § 345. a).

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff.

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Notes
1
These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly distinguishable.