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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

NUMERALS/ Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals

134. Of the Cardinals only ūnus , duo , trēs , the hundreds above one hundred, and mīlle when used as a noun, are declinable.

a. For the declension of ūnus, see § 113. It often has the meaning of same or only. The plural is used in this sense; but also, as a simple numeral, to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning: as, ūna castra, one camp (cf. § 137 . b). The plural occurs also in the phrase ūnī et alterī, one party and the other (the ones and the others).

Duo, 1 two, and trēs, three, are thus declined:—

M.F.N.M., F.N.
ACC. duōs (duo)duāsduo trēs (trīs) tria
Note— Ambō, both, is declined like duo.

c. The hundreds, up to 1000, are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like the plural of bonus.

d. Mīlle, a thousand, is in the singular an indeclinable adjective:—

mīlle modīs, in a thousand ways.

cum mīlle hominibus, with a thousand men.

mīlle trahēns variōs colōrēs (Aen. 4.701), drawing out a thousand various colors.

In the plural it is used as a neuter noun, and is declined like the plural of sedīle (§ 69): mīlia, mīlium, mīlibus, etc.

Note— The singular mīlle is sometimes found as a noun in the nominative and accusative: as, mīlle hominum mīsit, he sent a thousand (of) men; in the other cases rarely, except in connection with the same case of mīlia : as, cum octō mīlibus peditum, mīlle equitum, with eight thousand foot and a thousand horse.

e. The ordinals are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are regularly declined like bonus.

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The form in -o is a remnant of the dual number , which was lost in Latin, but is found in cognate languages. So in ambō , both , which preserves (cf. δύω and § 629 . b ).