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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

VARIABLE NOUNS

106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous. 1

a. The following have a masculine form in -us and a neuter in -um: balteus, cāseus, clipeus, collum, cingulum, pīleus, tergum, vāllum, with many others of rare occurrence.

b. The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the Singular:—

balneum (N.), bath;balneae (F.), baths (an establishment).
caelum (N.), heaven;caelōs (M. acc., Lucr.).
carbasus (F.), a sail;carbasa (N.) (-ōrum), sails.
dēlicium (N.), pleasure;dēliciae (F.), pet.
epulum (N.), feast;epulae (F.), feast.
frēnum (N.), a bit;frēnī (M.) or frēna (N.), a bridle.
iocus (M.), a jest;ioca (N.), iocī (M.), jests.
locus (M.), place;loca (N.), locī (M., usually topics , passages in books).
rāstrum (N.), a rake;rāstrī (M.), rāstra (N.), rakes.

Note.— Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneous.

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Notes
1
That is, “of different genders” ( ἕτερος , another , and γένος , gender ).