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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Case-Forms in the Fourth Declension

94. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension are formed from verb-stems, or roots, by means of the suffix -tus (-sus) (§ 238 . b):

cantus , song , CAN, canō , sing; cāsus (for † cad-tus), chance, CAD, cadō, fall, exsulātus, exile, from exsulō, to be an exile (exsul).

a. Many are formed either from verb-stems not in use, or by analogy:

cōnsulātus (as if from † cōnsulō, -āre), senātus, incestus.

b. The accusative and the dative or ablative of nouns in -tus (-sus) form the Supines of verbs (§ 159 . b): as, spectātum, petītum; dictū, vīsū .

c. Of many verbal derivatives only the ablative is used as a noun: as, iussū (meō), by (my) command; so iniussū (populī), without (the people's) order. Of some only the dative is used: as, dīvīsuī.

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