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Allen and Greenough/New Latin Grammar

Gender in the Third Declension

86. Feminine are nouns in , -ās, -ēs, -is, -ūs, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant: as, legiō, cīvitās, nūbēs, avis, virtūs, arx, urbs. The nouns in are mostly those in -dō and -gō, and abstract and collective nouns in -iō .

Exceptions are the following:—

a. Masculine are leō, leōnis; ligō, -ōnis; sermō, -ōnis; also cardō, harpagō, margō, ōrdō, turbō; and concrete nouns in -iō: as, pugiō, ūniō, papiliō; 1

acīnacēs, ariēs, celēs, lebēs, pariēs, pēs;

Nouns in -nis and -guis: as, īgnis, sanguis; also axis, caulis, collis, cucumis, ēnsis, fascis, follis, fūstis, lapis, mēnsis, orbis, piscis, postis, pulvis, vōmis;

mūs;

calix, fornix, grex, phoenīx, and nouns in -ex (gen. -icis) (§ 85 );

dēns, fōns, mōns, pōns.

Note— Some nouns in -is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectives or participles agreeing with a masculine noun: as, Aprīlis (sc. mēnsis), M., April; oriēns (sc. sōl), M., the east; annālis (sc. liber), M., the year-book.

b. Neuter are vās (vāsis); crūs, iūs, pūs, rūs, tūs.

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Notes
1
Many nouns in (gen. -ōnis ) are masculinby signification: as, gerō , carrier restiō , ropemaker : and family names (originally nicknames): as, Cicerō , Nāsō . See §§ 236 . c , 255.