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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension

79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined:—

 bōs, C.senex, M.carō, F.os, N. vīs, F.
 ox, cowold manfleshbone force
 SINGULAR
NOM.ssenexcarōoss
GEN.bŏvisseniscarnisossiss (rare)
DAT.bovīsenīcarnīossī(rare)
ACC.bovemsenemcarnemosvim
ABL. bove senecarneosse
cattlePLURALstrength
NOM. bovēs senēscarnēs ossavīrēs
GEN.boumsenumcarniumossiumvīrium
DAT. bōbus (būbus)senibuscarnibusossibusvīribus
ACC.bovēssenēscarnēsossavīrīs ( -ēs
ABL. bus (būbussenibuscarnibusossibusvīribus

 

 sūs, C.Iuppiter, M.nix, F.iter, N.
 swineJupitersnowmarch
SINGULAR
NOM.sIuppiter 1nixiter
GEN.suisIovisnivisitineris
DAT.suīIovīnivīitinerī
ACC.suemIovemnivemiter
ABL.sueIoveniveitinere
PLURAL
NOM.suēsnivēsitinera
GEN.suumniviumitinerum
DAT.sū˘ bus ( su ibusnivibusitineribus
ACC.suēsnivēsitinera
ABL.sū˘bus ( su ibusnivibusitineribus

a. Two vowel-stems in ū- , grū- and sū-, which follow the third declension, add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grūs has also a nominative gruis; sūs has both suibus and sū˘bus in the dative and ablative plural, grūs has only gruibus.

b. In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes ō in the nominative (bōs, bŏvi).

In nāv- (nau-) an i is added (nāvis, -is), and it is declined like turris (§ 67).

In Iŏv- (= Ζεύς) the diphthong (ou) becomes ū in Iū-piter (for -păter), genitive Iŏvis, etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

c. In iter , itineris (N.), iecur , iecinoris (iecoris) (N.), supellēx , supellēctilis (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex, senis, from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

d. In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

e. Vās (N.), vāsis , keeps s throughout; plural vās, vāsōrum. A dative plural vāsibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vāsum.

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Notes
1
Also Iüpiter .