Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

THIRD DECLENSION/ Pure i-Stems

68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with final i changed to e: as, mare, stem mari-. But most nouns 1 in which the i of the stem is preceded by āl or ār lose the final vowel and shorten the preceding ā : as, animăl , stem animāli- . 2

a. Neuters in -e , -al, and -ar have in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural: as, animal, animālī, -ia, -ium.

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Notes
1
Such are animal , bacchānal , bidental , capital , cervīcal , cubital , lupercal , minūtal , puteal , quadrantal , toral , tribūnal , vectīgal ; calcar , cochlear , exemplar , lacūnar , laquear , tūcar , lūminar , lupānar , palear , pulvīnar , torcular . Cf. the plurals dentālia , frontālia , genuālia , spōnsālia ; altāria , plantāria , speculāria , tālāria ; also many names of festivals , as, Sāturnālia .
2
Exceptions are augurāle , collāre , fōcāle , nāvāle , penetrāle , rāmāle , scūtāle , tībiāle ; alveāre , capillāre . cochleāre .