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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Case-Forms in the Second Declension

49. a. The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in -ī: as, humī, on the ground; Corinthī, at Corinth; for the plural, in -īs: as, Philippīs, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote).

b. The genitive of nouns in -ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan Age, in a single -ī: as, fīlī, of a son; Pompêī, of Pompey (Pompêius); but the accent of the nominative is retained: as, ingĕ'nī, of genius. 1

c. Proper names in -ius have -ī in the vocative, retaining the accent of the nominative: as, Vergĭ'lī. So also, fīlius, son; genius, divine guardian: as, audī, mī fīlī, hear, my son.

Adjectives in -ĭus form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occasionally used as nouns: as, Lacedaemonie, O Spartan.

Note— Greek names in -īus have the vocative -īe: as, Lyrcīus, vocative Lyrcīe.

d. The genitive plural often has -um or (after v) -om (cf. § 6. a) instead of -ōrum, especially in the poets: as, deum, superum, dīvom, of the gods; virum, of men. Also in compounds of vir, and in many words of money, measure, and weight: as, Sēvirum, of the Seviri; nummum, of coins; iūgerum, of acres.

e. The original ending of the ablative singular (-ōd) is sometimes found in early Latin: as, Gnaivōd (later, Gnaeō), Cneius.

f. Proper names in -âius, -êius, -ôius (as, Aurunculêius, Bôī), are declined like Pompêius.

g. Deus (M.), god , is thus declined:—

NOM. deus deī (diī), dī
GEN. deīdeōrum, deum
DAT. deōdeīs (diīs), dīs
ACC. deumdeōs
ABL. deōdeīs (diīs), dīs
Note— The vocative singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said to have been dee; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive plural, dīvum or dīvom (from dīvus, divine) is often used.

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The genitive in -iī occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probably unknown to Cicero.