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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Case-Forms in the First Declension

43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in -āī (dissyllabic), which is occasionally found: as, aulāī. The same ending sometimes occurs in the dative, but only as a diphthong.

b. An old genitive in -ās is preserved in the word familiās, often used in the combinations pater (māter, fīlius, fīlia) familiās, father, etc., of a family (plur. patrēs familiās or familiārum).

c. The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae; for the plural in -īs (cf. p. 34, footnote): as, Rōmae, at Rome; Athēnīs, at Athens.

d. The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of -ārum, especially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of Ænea , and in compounds with -cŏla and -gĕna, signifying dwelling and descent: as, caelicolum, celestials; Trōiugenum, sons of Troy; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and drachma.

e. The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, fīlia, daughter, end in an older form -ābus (deābus, fīliābus) to distinguish them from the corresponding cases of deus, god, and fīlius, son (deīs, fīliīs). So rarely with other words, as, līberta, freed-woman; mūla, she-mule; equa, mare. But, except when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents, etc.), the form in -īs is preferred in all but dea and fīlia.

Note 1— The old ending of the ablative singular (-ād) is sometimes retained in early Latin: as, praidād, booty (later, praedā).

Note 2— In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -īs is sometimes found, and -iīs (as in taeniīs) is occasionally contracted to -īs (taenīs); so regularly in words in -âia (as, Bâīs from Bâiae).

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