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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

General Rules of Gender

32. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees, and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most abstract Qualities, are feminine:

māter, mother; Iūlia, Julia; Rōma, Rome; Ītalia, Italy; rosa, rose; pīnus, pine; sapphīrus, sapphire; anas, duck; vēritās, truth.

a. Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine: as, Sulmō, Gabiī (plur.); or neuter, as, Tarentum, Illyricum.

b. A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termination: as, centaurēum (N.), centaury; acanthus (M.), bearsfoot; opalus (M.), opal.

Note— The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their gēns or house (see § 108. b).

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