A TEI Project

Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar


30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical.

a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: as, puer (M.), boy; puella (F.), girl; rēx (M.), king; rēgīna (F.), queen.

Note 1— Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish sex: as, cervus, cerva, stag, doe; cliēns, clienta, client; victor, victrīx, conqueror. Many designations of persons (as nauta, sailor) usually though not necessarily male are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine: as, Rōmānī, the Romans; Persae, the Persians.

Note 2— A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class: as, mancipium tuum, your slave (your chattel). Many pet names of girls and boys are neuter in form: as, Paegnium, Glycerium.

Note 3— Names of classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, exercitus (M.), aciēs (F.), and agmen (N.), army; operae (F. plur.), workmen; cōpiae (F. plur.), troops; senātus (M.), senate; cohors (F.), cohort; concilium (N.), council.

b. Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as, lapis māgnus (M.), a great stone; manus mea (F.), my hand.

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