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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Root, Stem, and Base

24. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, is called the Stem.

The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations; but, except in the first part of a compound (as, arti-fex, artificer), it cannot ordinarily be used without some termination to express them. 1

Thus the stem vōc- denotes voice; with -s added it becomes vōx, a voice or the voice, as the subject or agent of an action; with -is it becomes vōcis, and signifies of a voice.

Note— The stem is in many forms so united with the termination that a comparison with other forms is necessary to determine it.

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Notes
1
Another exception is the imperative second person singular in -e (as, rege).