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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Phonetic Changes

16. In compounds with prepositions the final consonant in the preposition was often assimilated to the following consonant, but usage varied considerably.

There is good authority for many complete or partial assimilations; as, for ad, acc-, agg-, app-, att-, instead of adc-, adg-, etc. Before a labial consonant we find com- (comb-, comp-, comm-), but con- is the form before c, d, f, g, cons. i, q, s, t, cons. v; we find conl- or coll-, conr- or corr-; cō- in cōnectō, cōnīveō, cōnītor, cōnūbium. In usually changes to im- before p, b, m. Ob and sub may assimilate b to a following c, f, g, or p; before s and t the pronunciation of prepositions ending in b doubtless had p; surr-, summ-, occur for subr-, subm-. The inseparable amb- loses b before a consonant. Circum often loses its m before i. The s of dis becomes r before a vowel and is assimilated to a following f ; sometimes this prefix appears as dī-. Instead of ex we find ef- before f (also ecf-). The d of red and sēd is generally lost before a consonant. The preposition is better left unchanged in most other cases.

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