Frieze Vocabulary List

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Headword Definitions Occurrences in the Aeneid Sort descending

(adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

spargō, sparsī, sparsus, 3, a.

to scatter, strew; cast in fragments, 3.605; disperse, 1.602; shower, hurl, 12.51; sprinkle, 4.512; besprinkle, bedew, stain, 8.645; infuse, 4.486; (fig.), spread abroad, disseminate, 2.98; bring over or upon, diffuse, 7.754.

solvō, solvī, solūtus, 3, a.

to unbind, loosen, 6.652, et al.; unfurl, 4.574; unfasten, cast off, 5.773; unyoke, unharness; of the hair, undo, dishevel, 3.65, et al.; dissolve, confound, mix, 12.205; separate, divide, 5.581; (fig.), set free, release, disenthrall, 4.487; exempt, release, 10.111; break, 10.91; pay, fulfill, perform, 3.404; dispel, cast off, banish, 4.55; 1.463; paralyze, 1.92; 12.951; of sleep or drunkenness, relax, 5.856; drown, 9.189; (pass.), solvor, sink, 4.530. (2. sē- and luō)

superbus, a, um

adj. (super), overbearing, haughty, proud, insolent, fierce, 1.523; superior, mighty, 1.21; audacious, 12.326; hard, cruel, 12.877; stately, superb, magnificent, splendid, 1.639.

sedeō, sēdī, sessus, 2, n.

to sit, 1.56; sit inactive, 9.4; alight, 6.192; (fig.), to be fixed, settled, resolved, 4.15; to suit, be pleasing, 5.418; circum sedēre, to encamp about; to besiege.

sīgnum, ī, n.

a sign, mark, impress; token, 1.443; sign, 3.388; signal, of games, 5.315; of battle, 10.310; goal, 5.130; figure, 1.648; standard, 7.628; (meton.), a body of men following a standard, troop, battalion, 11.517.

soror, ōris, f.

a sister, 1.322; sorōrēs Tartareae, the Furies, 7.327.


(prep. with acc. and abl.); (with acc.), over, above, 1.379; beyond, 6.794; upon, on, 1.295, 680; besides; super ūsque, even beyond, beyond, 11.317; (with abl.), upon, 1.700; over (him or his body), 5.482; about, of, concerning, 1.750, et al.; for, for the sake of, 4.233, et al.

somnus, ī, m.

sleep, slumber, 1.680, et al.; a dream, 1.353; night, 1.470, et al.; personif., Somnus, the god of sleep, 5.838, et al.

spēs, speī, f.

hope, expectation, prospect, freq.

surgō, surrēxī, surrēctus, 3, a. and n.

to raise, prick up, 4.183; rise, spring up, arise, 3.513, et al.; as an enemy, 10.28; to swell, 9.30; to tower up, 10.725; increase, grow, rise, 4.274; impend, threaten, 4.43. Cf. subrigō. (sub and regō)

sacer, sacra, sacrum

(adj.), set apart, consecrated, holy, sacred, 2.167, et al.; consecrated to, priest of, 6.484; devoted to the infernal gods; damned, accursed, 5.57.

sternō, strāvī, strātus, 3, a.

to spread out, spread, 1.700; stretch on the ground, strike down, slay, 1.190; cast down, prostrate, devastate, 2.306; make level, smooth, calm, 5.763; spread, cover, 8.719; strew, litter; overthrow, conquer, 6.858; pass. (in middle sense), sternor, ī, to stretch one's self, lie down, 3.509.

subeō, iī, itus (p. subiēns, euntis), 4, n. and a.

to go or come under, into, or up to; alone, or with acc. and prep., or with dat.; without a case, come up, 2.216; go under, bend, stoop down under, 10.522; come after; follow, 2.725; take one's place, 12.471; enter, 1.171; come into or upon the mind, suggest itself, occur, 2.560; with acc. and prep., go, advance towards, 8.359; with dat., come or go up to, down to, into, 5.203; succeed to, 5.176; come after, follow, 10.371; with acc., approach, enter, 1.400; go under a burden, bear, with abl. of instrument, 2.708; go under the yoke, draw, 3.113; enter the mind of, strike, occur to, 9.757; approach, reach, 3.512; approach, 7.22; meet, encounter, 10.798; attack, 9.344.

servō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.

to save, 3.86, et al.; reserve, 1.207; retain, keep, 6.200; hold, 7.179; continue, maintain, 10.340; guard, 2.450; keep, cherish, 1.36; preserve, inherit, 7.52; sit by, 2.568; dwell, abide by, 6.402; give heed to, watch, observe, 6.338; 11.200.

sīdus, eris, n.

a constellation; (fig.), season, 4.309; star, 6.338; bright aspect; weather; storm, 12.451; pl., sīdera, um, weather, vicissitudes of weather, 5.628.

saevus, a, um

(adj.), fierce, fell, wrathful, of men, animals, and things; cruel, 1.458; dreadful, direful, fearful, 2.559; furious, 9.792; stern, bloody, 6.824; formidable, valiant, warlike, 1.99; relentless, 12.849; maddening, angering; bitter, 1.25; mortal, 12.857.


(adv.), at once, together, at the same time, 1.144, et al.; w. abl. (cum being omitted), 5.357; simul ac or atque, as soon as, 4.90; without ac, as soon as, when; w. et, 1.144; simul — simul, and at the same time — and, 1.631; both — and, 1.513, et al.; as soon as — then, no sooner — than, 12.268.

sōlus, a, um

(adj.), alone, sole, only, 1.664, et al.; solitary, 4.82; lonely, 4.462; remote, solitary, 11.545; one only, an only, 7.52; (adv.), sōlum, only.

sēdēs, is, f.

a seat of any kind, freq.; (meton.), an habitation, abode, dwelling (pl. for sing.), 2.634; destined or proper place, 2.232; foundation, 2.465; of the sea, bottom, 1.84; temple, shrine, 2.742; palace, 2.760; final resting-place, grave, tomb, 6.328; realm, 7.52. (sedeō)

suus, a, um

his, her, its, their; his own, etc., 6.641, et al.; proper, appropriate, peculiar; fitting, 5.54; favorable, friendly, propitious, 5.832; emphatic for ēius, 4.633. (suī)

silva, ae, f.

a forest, wood, or grove, 6.444, et al.; stubble, 10.406; (fig.), forest or mass of spears, 10.887.

saxum, ī, n.

a large rough stone, rock, freq., cliff, crag, stone, 1.150; 3.699.

stō, stetī, status, 1, n.

to stand; stand up or erect, 2.774; remain standing, remain, 1.268; rise, 6.554; stand one's ground, fight, 5.414; of blood, to be stanched, 12.422; stand complete, be built, 3.110; stand at anchor, be moored, 3.277, 403; to be situated, lie, 3.210; remain firm, persistent, 7.374; to stand out with, be filled with, 6.300; to be thick with, 12.408; emphatic for esse, to be, 6.471, et al.; of the mind, to be fixed, 1.646; to depend, 2.163; (impers.), stat, it is fixed, determined, resolved, 2.750, et al.; stāre prō, to defend, 8; 653.

socius, iī, m.

an associate, ally, 9.150; companion, friend, comrade, 1.198, et al.

sanguis, inis, m.

blood, 3.30, et al.; parentage, lineage, descent, race, 1.19; offspring, son, 6.835.

superus, a, um

adj. (super), above, upper, supreme, 3.20; of the upper world as opposed to Hades, 2.91; 10.40; superae sēdēs, the sky, Olympus, 11.532; supera, the upper world, 7.562; the sky, heaven, 6.787; subst., superī, ōrum, m., those of the upper world, the living as opposed to the dead, 6.481; the gods above, or gods of Olympus as opposed to the infernal gods, 1.4; superl., suprēmus, a, um, the highest; most exalted, 10.350; illustrious, 7.220; extreme, 3.590; last, final, 2.11; subst., suprēmum, ī, n., the end, 12.803; pl., suprēma, ōrum, the last honors, rites, 6.213; (adv.), suprēmum, for the last time, 3.68; superl., summus, a, um, the uppermost, topmost, highest, 2.463; situated on a height; high, 2.166; the highest part of, summit of, top of, 2.302, et al.; surface of, 5.819, et al.; main, chief, 1.342; utmost, greatest, 5.197; supreme, 1.665; most important, 9.227; latest, last, 2.324, et al.; summa rēs, the chief or common interest, common weal, 11.302; the chief conflict, 2.322; subst., summum, ī, n., the top.

sequor, secūtus sum, 3, dep. a.

to follow, 1.185; follow closely, pursue, 5.227; seek after, pursue, 3.327; seek to reach, seek, 4.381; 10.193; pursue a plan or course, 3.368; compass, attain, find, 6.457; follow in narrative, recount, 1.342; follow; of words responding to the will, 12.912; yield to the hand, 6.146; attend, favor, 8.15.


(conj.), except that; but, yet, freq.; sed enim, but indeed, however, 1.19, et al.; sed autem, but yet, 2.101.


(prep. with abl. and acc.); (with abl.), under, (denoting situation); beneath, under, freq.; at the foot of, 3.5; in the lower part of a thing, in, 1.453; down in, deep in, 1.36; by, close, to, 5.837; (of time), in, 4.560; (of rank or order), just behind, next after, 5.323; close to, in subjection to, subordinate to, under, 9.643; by reason of, under, 2.83; (with acc.), denoting tendency, down to, 4.243; down under, into, 4.654; down before, 6.191; near to, 5.327; in the midst of, 12.811; (of approaching the foot of some high object), up to or close to, 2.442; to or towards, 6.541; (of some object situated above or on high), up to, towards, 3.422, et al.; of time, just before or after; following after, in reply to, 5.394; coming under, subject to, under, 4.618; sub noctem, at nightfall, 1.662.


(adv.), in this manner; in such a manner; so, thus; explanatory, 2.440, et al.; referring to a preceding participle, 1.225.


(conj.), if, freq.; causal, if, indeed, since, 2.102; equivalent to cum, 5.64, et al.; whether, w. subj., 4.110; w. indic., 1.578; for Ō sī, would that, w. subj., 6.187.

suī (gen.), sibi (dat.), sē or, emphasized, sēsē (acc. and abl.)

(reflex. pron., sing. and pl.), of himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc., freq.; (abl. with cum), sēcum, with one's self, 4.29.

sum, fuī, esse, irreg. n.

to be, as the copula between subject and predicate, freq.; to exist, be, 2.325, et al.; to pertain, belong to; one has or possesses, 3.433, et al.; (impers.), to be possible, one can, one may, 6.596; (imperat.), estō, be it so, grant, 4.35; archaic forms, pres, subj., fuam, ās, at, -ant, from fuō, 10.108; imperf. subj., forem, ēs, et, -ent, inf., fore, 1.235; rēs est alicui cum aliquō, one has a contest with one, 9.155.