Frieze Vocabulary List

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Headword Definitions Occurrences in the Aeneid Sort ascending
proelium, iī, n.

a battle, conflict, contest, combat, fight, 5.375, et al.; charge, 11.631. (in Virgil always pl.)

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Latīnus, ī, m.

Latinus, a king of Latium, whose capital was Laurentum, and whose daughter, Lavinia, became the wife of Aeneas, 6.891, et al. (Latium)

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Ascanius, iī, m.

Ascanius, son of Aeneas, and traditional founder of Alba Longa, 1.267.

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etiam

conj. (et emphasized by iam), and also, and besides; even, and even, freq.; for praeterea, besides, moreover, 11.352; of time, still, yet, even now, 6.485.

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rēgīna, ae, f.

a queen, 1.9; princess, 1.273. (rēx)

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fortis, e

(adj.), strong, physically, powerful, sturdy; strong in spirit; courageous, valiant, dauntless, bold, brave, 1.101; noble, 10.865.

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quondam

(adv.), some time or other; once; formerly, 4.307; lately, just now, 11.819; at times, 2.367; ever, 6.876. (quom = cum and -dam)

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nam

(conj. caus.), for, because, 1.731, et al.; beginning a parenthesis, 3.374.

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varius, a, um

(adj.), diversified, manifold, various, 5.605, et al.; different, 4.286; mingled, 11.475; varying, 1.748; changing, 4.564; subst., varium, iī, n., a changeable, fickle, inconstant thing, 4.569.

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imperium, iī, n.

a command, 1.230; absolute command, sway, control, authority, power, 1.54; dominion, 1.138; empire, kingdom, 2.191. (imperō)

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frāter, frātris, m.

a brother, 1.130.

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mora, ae, f.

delay, 3.453; cessation, pause, respite, stay, 5.458; hindrance, obstacle, 1.746; bulwark, 10.428.

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super

(prep. with acc. and abl.); (with acc.), over, above, 1.379; beyond, 6.794; upon, on, 1.295, 680; besides; super ūsque, even beyond, beyond, 11.317; (with abl.), upon, 1.700; over (him or his body), 5.482; about, of, concerning, 1.750, et al.; for, for the sake of, 4.233, et al.

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dolor, ōris, m.

pain, 4.693; grief, anguish, 4.474; resentment, 1.25; fury, vengeance, 2.594. (doleō)

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somnus, ī, m.

sleep, slumber, 1.680, et al.; a dream, 1.353; night, 1.470, et al.; personif., Somnus, the god of sleep, 5.838, et al.

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Trōiānus, a, um

adj. (Trōia), Trojan, 1.19; subst., Trōiānus, ī, m., a Trojan, 1.286; pl., Trōiānī, ōrum, m., the Trojans, 5.688.

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addō, didī, ditus, 3, a.

to put or lay near to or by, put on, 5.817; add, join, 9.765; erect on, 3.336; give, impart, 1.593; add, bestow, 5.249; addere sē, to join, 2.339.

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gerō, gessī, gestus, 3, a.

to carry, bear, 12.97, et al.; wear, 2.156; assume, put on as a guise, 1.315; 12.472; bear, produce, have, enjoy, 2.90; take, feel, 12.48; wage, carry on, 1.24; achieve, manage, 7.444; do (of conduct), 9.203.

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vertex, icis, m.

a whirl; whirlpool, 7.567; vortex, 1.117; whirling column of flame, 12.673; the top, crown of the head, the head, 1.403; summit, top, 1.163; mountain summit, height, 3.679; ā vertice, from on high, from above, 1.114. (vertō)

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quālis, e

(adj. interrog. and rel.), of what sort? what? of what aspect? 2.274; of such kind as; such as, as, 1.430; such as = many of which, 7.200; w. ubi, 2.471.

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sīgnum, ī, n.

a sign, mark, impress; token, 1.443; sign, 3.388; signal, of games, 5.315; of battle, 10.310; goal, 5.130; figure, 1.648; standard, 7.628; (meton.), a body of men following a standard, troop, battalion, 11.517.

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tempus, oris, n.

1. Time in general, a period, time, 1.278; interval or space of time, 4.433; crisis, circumstance, juncture, 7.37; season, fitting time, opportunity, proper moment, 4.294; ex longō (tempore), in or for a long time, 9.64. 2. The temple of the forehead, 9.418; commonly pl., 2.684; of animals, 12.173.

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(adv.), not, in prohibitions, 3.160; 3.453; nē — quidem, not even; (conj.), in order that not, that not, lest, 2.187, freq.

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reddō, didī, ditus, 3, a.

to give back; put back, restore, 12.785, et al.; deliver, 2.543; pour forth, 9.700; return, 1.409; render, pay; answer, 2.323; reproduce, bring back, 6.768; render, make, 5.705; sē reddere, emerge, 9.121; p., redditus, a, um, being conveyed back; brought back to the land or earth; alighting, 6.18.

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ergō

(adv.), therefore; w. gen. (like causā), for the sake of, on account of, 6.670; in a question, 6.456.

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vix

(adv.), hardly, scarcely, with difficulty, 5.263, and freq.

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soror, ōris, f.

a sister, 1.322; sorōrēs Tartareae, the Furies, 7.327.

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quā

(adv.), interrog., relat., and indef. (ablat. of quī), in, by, what way? how? 1.676; where, which way, side, direction, 2.463; for quācumque, any way, anywhere; in any way, by any means; where, in whatever way; so far as, 12.147; sī quā, if in any way, 1.18.

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enim

causal conj., for, 1.198, et al; corroborative, truly, certainly, yes, aye, even, indeed; with pers. pron., precisely, directly, 8.84; nec enim, nor indeed, 2.100; sed enim, but indeed, however, 1.19.

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haereō, haesī, haesus, 2, n.

to stick; foll. by dat., or by abl. w. or without a prep.; hang, cling, adhere, cling to, 1.476, et al.; stop, stand fixed, 6.559; halt, 11.699; adhere to as companion, 10.780; stick to in the chase, 12.754; persist, 2.654; dwell, 4.4; pause, hesitate, 3.597; be fixed or decreed, 4.614.

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tegō, tēxī, tēctus, 3, a.

to cover, 3.25, et al.; cover in the funeral urn, inclose, 6.228; surround, encompass, 11.12; protect, defend, shield, 2.430; shelter, 3.583; hide, conceal, 3.236; shut up, 2.126; overshadow, 8.95.

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poena, ae, f.

penalty, punishment, 1.136; pain, torture, torment, 6.543; revenge, vengeance, 2.572; 7.766.

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tamen

(conj.), however, notwithstanding, nevertheless, still, yet.

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metus, ūs, m.

fear, dread, terror, 1.218; awe, reverence, 7.60; personif., Metus, the demon of fear, Fear, 6.276.

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amnis, is, m.

flowing water; a river, freq.; stream, 4.164; water, 12.417; amnis Eumenidum, the Cocytus, 6.374.

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virtūs, ūtis, f.

manhood; valor, courage, 2.367, et al.; prowess, 1.566; moral worth, virtue, 5.344; greatness, glory, 6.806; heroism, 4.3; heroic effort, struggle, 12.913. (vir)

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audeō, ausus sum, semi-dep., 2, a. and n.

to dare; with inf., freq.; dare, venture upon, attempt, with acc., 10.811, et al.; to venture, 2.347; p., ausus, a, um, having dared, daring, 5.792.

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ter

(num. adv.), thrice, three times, 1.94, et al. (trēs)

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Priamus, ī, m.

1. Priam, son of Laomedon, king of Troy, 1.458, et al. 2. A Trojan youth, son of Polites and grandson of King Priam, 5.564.

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pius, a, um

(adj.), dutiful, pious, especially to gods and parents, 1.220, et al.; pious, reverent, devout, 1.526; sacred, holy, 4.637; righteous, good, 1.603; pure, 3.42; blessed, 5.734; of the gods, righteous, just, 4.382, et al.

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parvus, a, um (comp., minor, us; sup., minimus, a, um)

(adj.), small, little, 2.677, et al.; a child, infant, 10.317; subst., parvum, ī, n., a small estate, 6.843; small property, little, 9.607; pl., small affairs, 1.24; abl., parvō, at small expense, 10.494; comp., minor, us, less, smaller; younger, 9.593; inferior, 10.129; pl., minōrēs, um, m., descendants, posterity, 1.532.

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annus, ī, m.

a year, freq.; a season, portion of the year; māgnus annus, a complete year, or the great annual circuit of the sun, 3.284.

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pāx, pācis, f.

peace, 1.249; alliance, friendship, 7.266; indulgence, favor, pardon, 3.261; favor, assistance, 3.370. (cf. pacīscor)

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mūnus, eris, n.

a charge, service, office, employment, function, duty, 5.846; attribute, 12.393; aid, kindness, favor, 4.429; gift, present, 1.636; prize, 5.109; libation, 3.177; festival, 5.652; an honor, 12.520.

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superbus, a, um

adj. (super), overbearing, haughty, proud, insolent, fierce, 1.523; superior, mighty, 1.21; audacious, 12.326; hard, cruel, 12.877; stately, superb, magnificent, splendid, 1.639.

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ars, artis, f.

acquired skill; dexterity, 5.521; art, 2.15; warlike device, craft, 5.442; skillful effort or toil, 5.270; attainment, science, 7.772; prophetic wisdom, 5.705; aim, vocation, pursuit, 6.852; avocation, craft, 12.519; artifice, plot, stratagem, intrigue, 1.657; craft, subtlety, cunning, 2.152; skillful or cunning workmanship, 5.359.

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caedēs, is, f.

a cutting off or down; bloodshed, havoc, slaughter, 1.471, et al.; deadly blow, 2.526; bloody attack, assault, 3.256; blood, 9.818; pl., caedēs, ium or um, slaughter, bloodshed, 11.648, et al. (caedō)

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postquam

(adv. referring the time of one action or event to that of another), after that, as soon as, w. perf., 3.463; 1.520; from the time that, 4.17.

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portus, ūs, m.

a port, harbor, haven, 1.159, et al; (fig.), 7.598.

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sedeō, sēdī, sessus, 2, n.

to sit, 1.56; sit inactive, 9.4; alight, 6.192; (fig.), to be fixed, settled, resolved, 4.15; to suit, be pleasing, 5.418; circum sedēre, to encamp about; to besiege.

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nemus, oris, n.

a wood, forest, or grove, 1.165, et al.

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ecce

(interj.), see! lo! behold! w. a proposition, 5.793. (en and ce)

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precor, ātus sum, 1, dep. n. and a.

to pray; entreat, invoke, implore, beseech, supplicate, 4.521; pray for, 3.144; w. dat., 8.127; p., precāns, antis, suppliant, 7.237.

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cadō, cecidi, cāsus, 3, n.

to fall, sink down, freq.; set, of the sun and stars, 2.9; fall in battle, 2.368; in sacrifice, 1.334; of the wind, subside, cease; of the sea, subside, be hushed, 1.54; sink in death, die, 10.390; to fall out, happen, 2.709.

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dēnsus, a, um

(adj.), thick, dense, crowded, compact, in close array, serried, 2.383; frequent, 5.459.

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latus, eris, n.

a side, 1.105, et al.; coast, 8.416; laterum iūnctūrae, joinings of the sides of a belt, i.e, ends of a belt, 12.274.

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vātēs, is, c.

a prophet, soothsayer, augur, seer, 3.433; prophetess, 3.187; poet, bard, 6.662; priest, 11.774.

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maestus, a, um

adj. (maereō), sad, sorrowful, 2.270, et al.; melancholy, depressing, 1.202; gloomy, mournful, 3.64; betokening grief, 11.35.

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iungō, iūnxī, iūnctus, 3, a.

to join; unite, 1.73, et al.; clasp, 3.83; yoke, harness, 5.817; bind, tie, 8.485; connect, arrange, 3.451; ally, reconcile, 11.129; (w. sē understood), to join one's self to, reach, w. dat., 10.240; (with sibi), to join, 4.142; 11.145; p., iūnctus, a, um, joined, freq.; close together, equal, 5.157.

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ārdēns, entis

burning, hot, sparkling, flaming, 5.637; bright, 4.482; impassioned, ardent, eager, 1.423; spirited, fiery, 1.472; glowing, lofty, 6.130; fierce, furious, 2.529; angry, 6.467. (ardeo)

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fīgō, fīxī, fīxus, 3, a.

to fix or fasten; freq., the object in or on which, in the abl., 1.212; abl. w. prep., 6.636; acc. w. prep., 9.408; fasten up, suspend from, 3.287; hang up, 1.248; set up, establish, make, 6.622; transfix, pierce, 5.516; hurl (fix by hurling), 10.883; wound, 10.343; inscribe, 11.84.

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turbō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.

to stir up, confuse, disturb, 3.449; scatter, 1.395; overthrow, 11.796; agitate, 4.566; perplex, 1.515; enrage, anger, 8.435; madden, 7.767; without obj. acc., to make disturbance, uproar, 6.857, et a1.; reflex., to be troubled, 6.800. (turba)

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nēquīquam

(adv.), in vain, to no purpose, 2.515.

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lātē

(adv.), widely; far and wide, 1.21; on all sides, far around, 1.163; all over, 12.308. (lātus)

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iaceō, uī, itus, 2, n.

to be prostrate, lie, 1.99; extend, spread out; p., iacēns, entis, spread out, extended, 1.224; lying low, 3.689.

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quō

(interrog.) where? to what place? whither? whereto? 5.29; wherefore? 12.879; whither? 6.43.

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aureus, a, um

adj. (aurum), of gold, golden, armed with gold, 11.490; gilded, 6.13; (fig.), beautiful, fair, 10.16; perfectly pure and happy, golden, 6.792.

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gemitus, ūs, m.

a groaning; a groan, 3.39, et al.; sigh, 1.485; lamentation, 2.486; cry, 2.413; noise, roaring, 3.555. (gemō)

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Latīnī, ōrum, m.

the people of Latium; the Latins, 12.823, et al.

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Iūlus, ī, m.

Iulus or Ascanius, son of Aeneas, 1.267, et freq.

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lūcus, ī, m.

a consecrated wood; sacred grove, 6.259, et al.; in general, a grove, wood, forest.

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undique

(adv.), from or on every side or all sides; all around, everywhere, 3.193, et al. (unde and -que)

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cingō, cīnxi, cīnctus, 3, a.

to gird, 2.520; clothe, 8.282; surround, inclose, 1.112; encompass, envelop, 5.13; wreathe, crown, 5.71; involve, 1.673; fly around, 1.398.

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rēmus, ī, m.

originally steering-oar; an oar, 1.104.

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effundō, fūdī, fūsus, 3, a.

to pour out or forth; shed, 2.271; throw, cast out, 7.780; cast, 6.339; overthrow, 11.485; bring out, 9.68; unbind, dishevel, 4.509; dissolve, 2.651; let loose, throw out, 5.818; spend, lose, waste, 5.446; of words, utter, 5.780; (pass.), effundī, dart, 5.145; flow, 6.686. (ex and fundō)

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iter, itineris, n.

a going; a journey, passage, voyage, 3.507, et al.; track, path, way, 1.370; course, 7.35. (eō)

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forte

by chance, perchance, haply, 1.375, et al.

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fremō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.

to make a murmuring noise; to roar, 1.56; whinny, neigh, 12.82; raise lamentations, 6.175; whiz, 12.922; resound, 4.668; rage, 5.19; to be fierce, furious, 4.229; fume, rave, 12.535; shout and sing, 4.146; a., rage, rave for, clamor for, 11.453, et al.; ore fremere, applaud, shout applause, 5.385; p., fremēns, entis, raging, 4.229.

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solvō, solvī, solūtus, 3, a.

to unbind, loosen, 6.652, et al.; unfurl, 4.574; unfasten, cast off, 5.773; unyoke, unharness; of the hair, undo, dishevel, 3.65, et al.; dissolve, confound, mix, 12.205; separate, divide, 5.581; (fig.), set free, release, disenthrall, 4.487; exempt, release, 10.111; break, 10.91; pay, fulfill, perform, 3.404; dispel, cast off, banish, 4.55; 1.463; paralyze, 1.92; 12.951; of sleep or drunkenness, relax, 5.856; drown, 9.189; (pass.), solvor, sink, 4.530. (2. sē- and luō)

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templum, ī, n.

a portion of the heavens marked out or cut off for auguries; a place set apart as holy; holy ground; a shrine, fane, chapel, temple, 1.416, et al.(cf. τέμνω, cut off)

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faciēs, ēī, f.

the make or fashion of things; form, figure, 12.416; face, countenance, 1.658; image, specter, 7.448; aspect, 6.104; appearance, 3.310; form, kind, 6.560. (faciō)

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homō, inis, c.

man, a human being; freq., mortal, 1.328.

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caecus, a, um

(adj.), blind, freq.; blinded mentally, reckless, 1.349; 11.781; with fury, mad, 2.357; of things which baffle or obstruct the sight or the mind, dark, 3.200; hidden, covered, 1.536; secret, private, 2.453; from behind, 10.733; uncertain or dim, 9.518; uncertain, 6.30; aimless, 4.209; blinding, 12.444; of uncertain origin, 12.617; of sound, indistinct, subdued, 10.98; obscure, 12.591.

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Venus, eris, f.

Venus, goddess of love and beauty, identified by the Romans with Aphrodite, daughter of Jupiter and Dione, 1.411, et al.; (meton.), love, lust, 6.26.

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orbis, is, m.

a circle, ring; orb, disk, 2.227; coil, fold, 2.204; the globe, world, earth, 1.331; circular movement, revolving course, revolution, 1.269; orbit, 3.512; a winding, turning round, 12.743; of the eyes, 12.670.

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Dīdō, ūs or ōnis, f.

Dido, daughter of Belus, king of Phoenicia, who fled from her brother Pygmalion to Africa, where she founded the city of Carthage, 1.299.

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spargō, sparsī, sparsus, 3, a.

to scatter, strew; cast in fragments, 3.605; disperse, 1.602; shower, hurl, 12.51; sprinkle, 4.512; besprinkle, bedew, stain, 8.645; infuse, 4.486; (fig.), spread abroad, disseminate, 2.98; bring over or upon, diffuse, 7.754.

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heu

(interj.), alas! ah! oh! 2.289, et al.

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aspiciō, spexī, spectus, 3, a.

to look at; to behold, see, 1.393, et al.; (fig.), to consider, 1.526; regard, pity, 2.690. (ad and speciō, look)

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cavus, a, um

(adj.), hollow, 1.81; concave, 8.599; arching, vaulted, 2.487; cavae manūs, the palms of the hands, 12.86.

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Dardanius, a, um

adj. (Dardanus), Dardanian, Trojan, 5.711; subst., Dardanius, iī, m., the Dardanian; the Trojan, 12.14.

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fūnus, eris, n.

a funeral; freq., funeral rites, 4.308; death, carnage, 2.361; corpse, dead body, 6.150; deathbed, 9.491; funeral pyre, 11.189; calamity, 1.232; pl., fūnera, um, a corpse prepared for burial, 9.486.

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vester, tra, trum

possessive pron. (vōs), your, yours, 1.573, et al.

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super

(adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

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certāmen, inis, n.

a striving, a struggle; effort, 5.197; combat, emulation, strife, 3.128; battle, war, 8.639; contest, game, 5.286. (certō)

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īnstō, stitī, 1, n.

to stand on or upon; w. dat., acc., inf., or alone; w. dat., to stand on, 11.529; stand or hang over, 10.196; (w. acc.), to work at, ply work upon, 8.834; (w. inf.), urge on, press on, 1.423; persist, 10.118; (alone), to follow up, press on; pursue, 1.468; struggle, 12.783; be near at hand, approach, threaten, 12.916; to be urgent, important, incumbent, 4.115.

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dīrus, a, um

(adj.), accursed; portentous; fearful, dreadful, awful, dire, cruel, horrible, freq.; accursed, 2.261; unhallowed, impious, 6.373; foul, carrion, 3.262; wild, furious, ardent, 9.185; pl., dīra (adv.), fearfully, 10.572.

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cor, cordis, n.

the heart, of the mind, feelings, spirit, passions; mind, heart, breast, 1.50; disposition, spirit, 1.303; pleasure, delight, 7.326.

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fessus, a, um

adj. (rel. to fatīscō), faint, wearied, tired; spent, exhausted, feeble, 2.596; languid; (fig.), strained, sea-tossed, 1.168; afflicted, 3.145; wearied with, exhausted by, w. gen., 1.178; w. abl., 5.715.

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causa, ae, f.

a cause, reason, 1.25; cause, occasion, 2.285; pretext, excuse, occasion, 4.51; a reason, an argument, 8.395; a cause (judicial), 6.849; with infin., 10.90.

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VERGIL AENEID VOCABULARY