Frieze Vocabulary List

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Headword Definitions Occurrences in the Aeneid Sort ascending
certāmen, inis, n.

a striving, a struggle; effort, 5.197; combat, emulation, strife, 3.128; battle, war, 8.639; contest, game, 5.286. (certō)

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īnstō, stitī, 1, n.

to stand on or upon; w. dat., acc., inf., or alone; w. dat., to stand on, 11.529; stand or hang over, 10.196; (w. acc.), to work at, ply work upon, 8.834; (w. inf.), urge on, press on, 1.423; persist, 10.118; (alone), to follow up, press on; pursue, 1.468; struggle, 12.783; be near at hand, approach, threaten, 12.916; to be urgent, important, incumbent, 4.115.

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circum

(adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

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os, ossis, n.

a bone, 2.121.

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vultus, ūs, m.

the look or expression of the face; face, visage, countenance, 1.209; features, 4.556; appearance, aspect, 5.848; eyes, sight, 2.539.

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vestis, is, f.

a garment, freq.; robe, 6.645; vestment, 1.404; clothing, 6.359; covering, drapery, tapestry, 1.639.

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patior, passus sum, 3, dep. a.

to suffer, permit, allow, 1.644; submit to, bear, undergo, endure, 1.219.

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lētum, ī, n.

death, destruction, 2.134, et al. (cf. dēleō)

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exter (exterus), era, erum

adj. (ex), on the outside; external, foreign, 4.350; superl., extrēmus (or extimus), a, um, outermost; outer, 12.925; last, most distant, farthest, 5.327; remotest, hindmost, last, 5.183; final, 3.714; consummating, finishing, 7.572; last in degree; extreme, basest, worst, 11.701; the instant of, verge of, 2.447; subst., extrēma, ōrum, pl. n., the most distant parts, 1.577; the last sufferings, death, 1.219; perils, 3.315; adv.; extrēma, for the last time, one’s last, 11.865.

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sonitus, ūs, m.

a sounding; noise, 2.732, et al.; roaring, 2.209; thunder, 6.586. (sonō)

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errō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.

to go astray, wander, 1.578; go to and fro, stray, 7.493; hover, 4.684; float, 3.76; to err, be uncertain, 7.498.

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Phoebus, ī, m.

Phoebus or Apollo, 1.329, et al.

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centum

(indecl. num. adj.), hundred, 6.625.

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galea, ae, f.

a helmet, either of leather or of metal, 3.468, et al.

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vēlum, ī, n.

a cloth; sail, 1.103, et al.; a curtain, canvas, covering, 1.469.

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asper, era, erum

(adj.), rough, 2.379; rugged, craggy, jagged, 6.360; chased, embossed, 5.267; (fig.), of the weather, stormy, 2.110; of temperament, spirit, or nature, barbarous, 5.730; formidable, fierce, 1.14; full of strife, warlike, 1.291; cruel, stern, 6.882; angry, 1.279; bitter, 2.96; displeased, 8.365.

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equidem

(adv.), indeed, at least, certainly, surely; w. first person, for my part, 1.238. (demonstr. e or ec and quidem)

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iste, ista, istud

dem. pron., properly relating to the second person, that of which you speak, or which pertains to you; that, this; such, 2.521.

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sōl, sōlis, m.

the sun, 1.431, et al.; a day, 3.203; sunlight, 2.475; as a god, Sōl, 1.568, et al.; pl., sōlēs, days, 3.203.

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mōnstrum, ī, n.

the thing which warns; an omen, a portent, 3.26; supernatural token, sign, 12.246; a prodigy, marvel, wonder, terror, 3.583; monster, 2.245. (moneō)

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inde

(adv.), from that place; of time, thence, thereupon, then, 1.275; thereupon, 2.434; afterwards; for ex hōc, ex hāc, etc., 3.663; for ab illō, from that quarter, from him, 10.54; iam inde, at once, forthwith, 6.385.

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moror, ātus sum, 1, dep. n. and a.

to delay, linger, tarry, 2.102; retard, hinder, detain, delay, 2.373; think upon, 7.253; notice, regard, 2.287; nihil or nōn morārī, not to consider as important; to think nothing of, 11.365; not to value, 5.400. (mora)

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tumulus, ī, m.

a rising ground; a low hill, 9.195; a mound, 2.713; sepulchral mound, sepulcher, tomb, 3.304; 11.103. (tumeō)

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dēserō, uī, tus, 3, a.

to disconnect, loosen one’s self; leave, 3.711; forsake, abandon, desert, 4.323; leave behind, 5.220; give up, break off, 9.694.

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sinō, sīvī, situs, 3, a.

to allow, permit, suffer, 1.18; leave off, forbear, 10.15; (with inf. or subj. following), suffer, let, 10.433; 5.163; spare, 10.598; leave, (w. acc. and dat.), 9.620.

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iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.

to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

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corripiō, ripuī, reptus, 3, a.

to take completely or eagerly; to grasp, snatch, seize, catch, 1.45; hurry away, 1.100; tear away; hasten on, take, 1.418; raise quickly, rouse, 4.572; sē corripere, to hasten away, 6.472. (com- and rapiō)

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bis

(adv.), twice, 1.381. (in composition bi-)

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tempus, oris, n.

1. Time in general, a period, time, 1.278; interval or space of time, 4.433; crisis, circumstance, juncture, 7.37; season, fitting time, opportunity, proper moment, 4.294; ex longō (tempore), in or for a long time, 9.64. 2. The temple of the forehead, 9.418; commonly pl., 2.684; of animals, 12.173.

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membrum, ī, n.

a limb, joint, part, member, 1.691, et al.

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iuvō, iūvī, iūtus, 1, a. and n.

to help, aid, assist, 1.571; delight; impers., iuvat, it is of use, it avails, helps, 10.56; pleases, delights, gratifies, 1.203.

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deinde (often dissyl.)

(adv.), from that place (rarely) or time; then, thereupon, 5.321; now, immediately, 4.561; next, still, 9.781.

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Latium, iī, n.

a country of ancient Italy, extending from the left bank of the lower Tiber to Campania, 1.6; (meton.), for Latīnī, the Latins, people of Latium, 10.365, et al. (2. latus; Virgil, 8.323, derives it from lateō)

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aes, aeris, n.

copper, bronze; brass, in one of the old English usages of that word, 1.449, et al.; anything made of copper or bronze; a trumpet, 3.240; cymbal; armor, 2.734; shield, 2.545; a bronze statue, 6.847; a track or course of bronze plates, 6.591; a ship’s prow or beak, or a copper-bottomed ship, 1.35; pl., aera, n., money, 11.329; aere nexus, bronze-bound, of bronze, 1.448.

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mōlēs, is, f.

a cumbrous mass; a heavy pile or fabric; mound, rampart, 9.35; dike, 2.497; a mass of buildings, vast buildings, 1.421; structure, 11.130; frame or figure, 2.32; bulk, 5.118; weight, 7.589; pile, mass, 1.61; gigantic frame, 5.431; warlike engine, siege tower, 5.439; array, pomp, train, 12.161; body of soldiers, phalanx, 12.575; heavy storm, tempest, 5.790; toil, work, labor, 1.33.

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gravis, e

(adj.), heavy, 1.728, et al.; pregnant, 1.274; ponderous, firm, 5.437; (fig.), grave, venerable, 1.151; stern, grave (gravely), 5.387; cruel, 10.630; fierce, 10.755; weighed down with years or disease; infirm, enfeebled, 2.436; grievous, hard, 6.56; painful, deep, 4.1; offensive; comp., graviōra, um, subst., n. pl., greater hardships, sufferings, 1.199.

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crūdēlis, e

adj. (crūdus), unfeeling, ruthless, cruel, inhuman, 2.124; relentless, 1.547; unnatural, 6.24; mortal, deadly, 2.561; bloody, 1.355; bitter, 1.361.

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nōtus, a, um

known, 1.669; wonted, usual, 2.773; well-known, 3.657; famed, renowned, distinguished, celebrated, 1.379; familiar, well proved, 12.759; nōtum, n., (referring to a following clause), the knowledge, etc., 5.6.

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pontus, ī, m.

the sea; the deep, 2.295; wave, billow, 1.114.

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adgnoscō, nōvī, nitus, 3, a.

to recognize, 1.470.

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auxilium, iī, n.

that which promotes; assistance, help, relief, succor, 1.571; pl. auxilia, ōrum, help, assistance, 2.163. (augeō)

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ōrdō, inis, m.

an arranging; line, 1.395; train; order, rank of oars, 5.271; order, 5.349; train, procession, 6.754; series, succession, course of events, 3.376; estimate, class, position, 2.102; abl., ōrdine, in due course, properly, 3.548; in historical order, in detail, 3.179; ex ōrdine, in succession, 5.773. (rel. to ōrdior)

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solum, ī, n.

the bottom or ground of anything; soil, earth, ground, 1.367, et al.; land, 3.698; foundation, 10.102; the water beneath a ship, as its support; the water, sea, 5.199; support, table, 7.111.

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rāmus, ī, m.

a branch, bough, 4.485, et al.; limb, 8.318; wreath, 5.71.

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mīlle

(num. adj., indecl.), a thousand, 1.499; subst. pl., mīlia, ium, n., thousands, 1.491.

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imāgō, inis, f.

an image, form, 2.560, et al.; figure, statue, 7.179; apparition, 1.408; ghost, phantom, 1.353; idea, thought, 12.560; manifestation, example, 6.405; echo.

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quisque, quaeque, quodque or (subst.) quidque or quicque

(indef. pron.), each, every; each one, every one, everything, 2.130, et al.; in apposition w. pl., 6.743.

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Apollō, inis, m.

Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona; the god of prophecy, medicine, music, poetry, and archery, 2.430; met., a temple of Apollo, 3.275.

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pariter

(adv.), equally, 2.729; also, in like manner, in the same manner, on equal terms, 1.572; side by side, 2.205; at the same time, 10.865; pariter — pariter, 8.545. (pār)

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vōtum, ī, n.

a thing vowed; a conditional pledge made to some deity; a vow, 5.234, prayer, 4.65; votive offering, 2.17; sacrifice, 3.279. (voveō)

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ubī

(adv. of place and time; relat.), where; (indefinite), wheresoever, 7.400; (interrog.), where, 3.312, et al.; (of time), when; whenever, 4.143, et al.; as soon as, 1.81; in comparison, 2.471; 7.719, et al.

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certus, a, um

determined; distinct; separate, peculiar; fixed, 2.350; 6.673; stated; direct, 2.212; resolved, 2.554; certain of, resolved on, 4.554; confident, stout, 9.249; unerring, 12.490; secure, 9.96; trustworthy, sure, faithful, 1.576; undoubted, true, 6.322; certum est, it is determined, I resolve, we resolve, 3.686; (aliquem) certum facere, to inform, 3.179; (adv.), certē, certainly, surely, at any rate, at least, 1.234, et al. (cernō)

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rūrsus or rūrsum

(adv.), backward; again, anew, 2.401; in turn, 4.534. (for reversum from revertō)

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secō, secuī, sectus, 1, a.

to cut, freq.; cut off, 4.704; engrave, carve, 3.464; cut through, cleave, 5.218, et al.; of the channel of a river, 8.63; sail through, pass, 8.96; speed, 6.899; shape out mentally, form, 10.107.

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īnsīgnis, e

beautiful, 3.468; splendid, adorned, 4.134; conspicuous, 6.808; marked, renowned, distinguished, 1.10; illustrious, glorious, 10.450. (in and sīgnum)

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rīpa, ae, f.

the shore, border, or bank of a stream, 6.314; for flūmen, 7.106.

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attollō, 3, a.

to lift or raise up, throw, cast up, 3.574; rear, build, 2.185; (fig.), to rouse, excite, 2.381; with se, lift one’s self or itself, 4.690; come into view, appear, 3.205; (fig.), arise, be exalted, 4.49; (pass.), attollī, to rise, 5.127. (ad and tollō)

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lūstrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.

to purify by atonement, 3.279; go round the fields with the victims; hence to bless, ask for a blessing on; go or dance around an altar or the image of a god, 7.391; traverse, pass across, around, or over, 1.608; pass in review, parade before, 5.578; run through, 2.528; search, 1.577; observe, survey, 1.453; watch, mark, 11.763; of the sun, illuminate, 4.607. (lūstrum)

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pellō, pepulī, pulsus, 3, a.

to drive; impel, throw, shoot, 12.320; slay, 11.56; drive away, expel, banish, 1.385; repel, 10.277; dismiss, 5.812; strike with sound, cause to echo, 7.702; to clash, reverberate, 8.529.

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alter, era, erum (gen. sing. alterius, dat. alterī, in all genders)

adj. (rel. to alius), the other; one of two; the next; the second, 5.311; a single other; one- or another of the same class; another; any second one; with a neg., not one other, 1.544; alter — alter, the one — the other, 5.299; alter — alterius, each — other’s, 2.667.

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incendō, cendī, cēnsus, 3, a.

to set fire to, burn, 2.353; kindle, 3.279; illuminate, 5.88; (fig.), of the mind, fire, inflame, 1.660; arouse, rouse to action, 5.719; excite, irritate, enrage, madden, provoke, 4.360; disturb, rend, fill, 10.895.

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inquam, n. def.

to say; always used after one or more words in a direct quotation, 1.321, et al.

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sine

(prep. with abl.), without, 1.133, et al.; (connecting substantives), 6.292; 10.636. For sē- or sēd- in composition, see sē-.

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superō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.

surmount; go over, 6.676; rise above, 2.219; pass by or beyond, 1.244; make one's way through, 8.95; overpower, slay, 1.350; overcome, conquer, 2.311; prevail, 5.22; surmount, 3.368; remain, survive, be still living, 3.339; be left; remain, 12.873; be proud, elated, rejoice, 5.473; superāre ascēnsū, to mount, ascend, 2.303. (super)

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autem

(conj.), but, yet, however, truly, indeed, now, moreover, denoting contrast, difference, addition, or transition, freq.

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pendeō, pependī, 2, n.

to hang, foll. by abl. alone or w. prep., 2.546, et al.; 5.511; be suspended, 1.106; cling, 9.562; bend, stoop forward, 5.147; (meton.), linger, delay, 6.151; listen, hang upon, 4.79.

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sagitta, ae, f.

an arrow, 1.187, et al.

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ārdeō, ārsī, ārsus, 2, n. and a.

to burn; to be on fire, or in flames, 2.311, et al.; be burned, 2.581; (fig.), rage in combat, 1.491; burn with impatience, to long, 1.515; burn with love, 4.101; glow, 4.262.

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palma, ae, f.

the palm of the hand, 8.69; the hand, 1.93; palm branch, 5.111; a palm branch or wreath as the symbol of victory; reward, prize, 5.349; victory; a victor, 5.339.

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ignārus, a, um

(adj.), not knowing; freq.; unaware, ignorant, 11.154; often w. genit., ignorant of, 1.630; unsuspicious of, 2.106; unconscious, 9.345; not knowing the land; (pass.), unknown, a stranger, 10.706.

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ager, agrī, m.

the land pertaining to a person or community; land under cultivation; a field, 2.306, et al.; land, 1.343, et al.

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collum, ī, n.

the neck of men and animals, 1.654, et al.; of a plant, 9.436; pl., the neck, 11.692.

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arduus, a, um

(adj.), steep; erect, high, raised high, 2.475; 5.480; lofty, towering, 2.328; rearing, 11.638.

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effor, fātus sum, 1, dep. a. and n.

to speak forth; speak, say, 6.560. (ex and for)

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adfor, fātus sum, 1, dep. a.

to speak to; address, 1.663; beseech, supplicate, 2.700; bid adieu, farewell to, 2.644.

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crīnis, is, m.

the hair, 1.480; train of meteors, 5.528; (often in the pl.), the hairs of the head, the hair.

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opus, eris, n.

work, labor, 1.436; task, toil, 6.183; enterprise, 3.20; the thing produced by work; a work (of art), 1.455; of buildings, 5.119.

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sonō, sonuī, sonitus, 1, n. and a.

to sound, resound, freq.; murmur, 3.442, et al.; chirp, 12.477; rattle, 4.149; roar, 1.246; thunder, 2.113; (w. acc.), indicate by sound, betray, reveal, 1.328; boast, 12.529.

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Phrygius, a, um

Phrygian, Trojan, 1.381; subst., Phrygiae, ārum, f., Phrygian or Trojan women, 518. (Phryx)

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secundus, a, um

adj. (sequor), the following; second, 5.258; inferior, 11.441; favorable, fair, 4.562; swiftly flying, 1.156; fortunate, prosperous, 1.207; successful, 2.617; joyful, 8.90; 10.266; auspicious, propitious, 4.45; of a river, easily flowing, downwards.

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furō, uī, 3, n.

to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

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vetus, eris

(adj.), old, aged, freq.; ancient, early, former, 1.23, et al.

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Latīnus, a, um

adj. (Latium), of Latium; Latin, 1.6, et al.; Latīna, ae, f., a Latin woman, 12.604.

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Tyrrhēnus, a, um

adj. (Tyrrhēnī), Tyrrhenian; Etruscan, Tuscan, 1.67; subst., Tyrrhēnus, ī, m., a Tuscan, 10.787.

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altum, ī, n.

the deep; the lofty; the deep sea, the main, the deep, 1.3; the sky, heaven, air, 1.297; from far, far-fetched, remote, 8.395. (altus)

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scopulus, ī, m.

a projecting ledge of rock; a high cliff or rock, 1.180; crag, 1.45; ledge, reef, 1.145; detached rock, fragment of rock, 12.531.

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velut (velutī)

(adv.), even as, like, as it were, as, just as, as if, 1.82, et al. (vel and ut)

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factum, ī, n.

a thing done; deed, action, achievement, 1.364.

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Acestēs, ae, m.

Acestes or Segestus, the son of Crimisus, a Sicilian river god, and Egesta or Segesta, a Trojan woman, 1.195.

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sors, sortis, f.

a lot, 5.490, et al.; fate, lot, destiny, fortune, condition, 6.114; hazard, 12.54; luck, success, victory, 12.932; oracular response, oracle, 4.346; 7.254; allotment, designation, 6.431; division, part, 10.40.

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placidus, a, um

adj. (placeō), gentle, calm, tranquil, peaceful, serene, 5.848; inactive, idle, 9.187; friendly, propitious, 3.266; (adv.), placidē, gently, softly, quietly, calmly, 5.86.

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sacrum, ī, n.

a holy thing; pl., sacra, ōrum, n., sacred symbols, rites, 12.13; sacred rites, ceremonies, sacrifices, 2.132; sacred things, utensils, symbols, 2.293; mysteries, 3.112.

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tantum

(adv.), so much, 6.877; just so much; only, 2.23; in tantum, to such a degree or height, so high, 6.876; tantum — quantum, so great (such, so much) — as.

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loquor, locūtus sum, 3, dep. n. and a.

to speak, 1.614, et al.; tell, 6.266; say, 1.731; sing, 6.662.

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semper

(adv.), always, ever, 2.97, et al.

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memorō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.

to call to memory; mention, rehearse, relate, 1.8; say, speak, 3.182; name, 1.327; mention proudly, boast of, 5.392. (memor)

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iugum, ī, n.

a yoke, 3.542, et al.; a span, team, horses, 5.147, et al.; cross-bench, seat, bench, 6.411; of hills or mountains, summit, top, ridge, 1.498; mount, 7.799; brow of a hill, 8.236; (fig.), subjection, 10.78; pl., iuga, ōrum, (meton.), car, chariot, 6.804; 10.594. (rel. to iungō)

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aequus, a, um

(adj.), plain, even; on a level with, leveled, with dat., 12.569; equal, open, fair, 11.706; equal, adequate, prepared, 10.450; favorable, 1.479; impartial, equitable, just, 6.129; unprejudiced, unbiased, 9.234; aequō pede, with foot to foot, face to face, 12.465; aequum est, it is just, 12.20; aequius fuerat, it would have been more just, 11.115.

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subitus, a, um

having come up suddenly; unexpected, sudden, 2.692; suddenly, 3.225. (subeō)

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tūtus, a, um

secure, safe; in safety, 1.243; sure, 4.373; (adv.), tūtō, with safety, safely, without danger, 11.381. (tueor)

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VERGIL AENEID VOCABULARY